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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bone marrow transplantation for children less than 2 years of age with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

We analyzed results of 40 infants less than 2 years of age who received bone marrow transplants (BMT) between May 1974 and January 1995 for treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; N = 34) or myelodysplastic syndrome ( MDS; N = 6) to determine outcome and survival performance. Among the AML patients, 13 were in first remission, 9 were in untreated first relapse or second remission, and 12 were in refractory relapse. Patients were conditioned with cyclophosphamide in combination with either total body irradiation (TBI; N = 29) or busulfan (N = 11). Source of stem cells included 6 autologous donors, 15 HLA genotypically identical siblings, 14 haploidentical family members, and 5 unrelated donors. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was methotrexate (MTX) for 17, MTX plus cyclosporine (CSP) for 14, or CSP plus prednisone for 3. Incidence of severe (grade 3-4) regimen-related toxicity was 10% and transplant-related mortality was 10%. Acute GVHD (grades II-III) occurred in 39% of allogeneic patients, and chronic GVHD developed in 40%. Relapse, the most significant problem for patients in this study, occurred in 1 MDS patient and 23 AML patients and was the cause of death for 19 patients. The 2-year probabilities of relapse are 46%, 67%, and 92%, respectively, for patients transplanted in first remission, untreated first relapse or second remission, and relapse. One MDS and 8 AML patients received second marrow transplants for treatment of relapse, and 5 of these survive disease-free for more than 1.5 years. All 6 MDS patients and 11 of 34 AML patients survive more than 1.5 years later. The 5-year probabilities of survival and disease-free survival are 54% and 38% for patients transplanted in first remission and 33% and 22% for untreated first relapse or second remission. None of the patients transplanted with refractory relapse survive disease-free. Outcome was significantly associated with phase of disease at transplantation and pretransplant diagnosis of extramedullary disease. Long-term sequelae included growth failure and hormonal deficiencies. Survival performance was a median of 100% (80% to 100%) and neurologic development for all survivors was appropriate for age. This study indicates that infants with AML have similar outcome after BMT compared with older children and that BMT should be performed in first remission whenever possible. In addition, allogeneic BMT provides effective therapy for the majority of infants with MDS.[1]


  1. Bone marrow transplantation for children less than 2 years of age with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Woolfrey, A.E., Gooley, T.A., Sievers, E.L., Milner, L.A., Andrews, R.G., Walters, M., Hoffmeister, P., Hansen, J.A., Anasetti, C., Bryant, E., Appelbaum, F.R., Sanders, J.E. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
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