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Chemical Compound Review

CHEBI:71683     (2R)-2-[[(4R)-4-amino-4- carboxy...

Synonyms: AC1L9R2X, D-gamma-Glu-D-Glu, Poly-D-glutamic acid, D-gamma-glutamyl-D-glutamic acid
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Disease relevance of AIDS003574


High impact information on AIDS003574

  • Over the chosen intervals, from 80 to 96% of the lysosomes could be paired within 1 micron of each other in the NH4Cl- and PGA-treated cells in comparison with 50-70% in normal cells [5].
  • Treatment of the macrophages with 5-10 mM NH4Cl for 0.5-2 h or with 100 micrograms PGA/ml for 5 d caused a striking inhibition of saltatory lysosomal movements, as well as the expected inhibition of P-L fusion [5].
  • The Dep protein appears to be an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule [2].
  • We discovered that brief administration of a low-molecular-weight synthetic peptide, poly-d-glutamic acid (PDG), induced prompt and robust expansion of EPO-producing PIC in rat kidney, without evidence of tubular cell necrosis/apoptosis or fibrotic reaction [6].
  • Specimens obtained 3 hours after injection of poly-D-glutamic acid and horseradish peroxidase suggested an impairment of endosome and/or lysosome fission, but not fusion [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of AIDS003574


Biological context of AIDS003574


Anatomical context of AIDS003574


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AIDS003574


  1. Capsule synthesis by Bacillus anthracis is required for dissemination in murine inhalation anthrax. Drysdale, M., Heninger, S., Hutt, J., Chen, Y., Lyons, C.R., Koehler, T.M. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of a novel gene, dep, associated with depolymerization of the capsular polymer in Bacillus anthracis. Uchida, I., Makino, S., Sasakawa, C., Yoshikawa, M., Sugimoto, C., Terakado, N. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Poly-D-glutamic acid induces an acute lysosomal thesaurismosis of proximal tubules and a marked proliferation of interstitium in rat kidney. Kishore, B.K., Maldague, P., Tulkens, P.M., Courtoy, P.J. Lab. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Serological studies of patients with cutaneous and oral-oropharyngeal anthrax from northern Thailand. Sirisanthana, T., Nelson, K.E., Ezzell, J.W., Abshire, T.G. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Chemical inhibitors of phagosome-lysosome fusion in cultured macrophages also inhibit saltatory lysosomal movements. A combined microscopic and computer study. Hart, P.D., Young, M.R., Jordan, M.M., Perkins, W.J., Geisow, M.J. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Administration of poly-D-glutamic acid induces proliferation of erythropoietin-producing peritubular cells in rat kidney. Kishore, B.K., Isaac, J., Westenfelder, C. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Anthrax toxin. Bhatnagar, R., Batra, S. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Purification and physical analysis of Bacillus anthracis plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Kaspar, R.L., Robertson, D.L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Mechanism of the thesaurismosis and altered lysosomal dynamics induced by poly-D-glutamic acid in kidney proximal tubular cells. Kishore, B.K., Fuming, L., Maldague, P., Tulkens, P.M., Courtoy, P.J. Lab. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Generation of anti-ssDNA antibodies by persistent immunization of mice with sheep erythrocytes. Vidal, J. Immunobiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Intracellular localization of HSP73 and HSP90 in rat kidneys with acute lysosomal thesaurismosis. Komatsuda, A., Wakui, H., Ohtani, H., Imai, H., Miura, A.B., Itoh, H. Pathol. Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Evaluation of serologic tests for diagnosis of anthrax after an outbreak of cutaneous anthrax in Paraguay. Harrison, L.H., Ezzell, J.W., Abshire, T.G., Kidd, S., Kaufmann, A.F. J. Infect. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
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