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Needlal     dioxocerium

Synonyms: Nidoral, Opaline, Ceria, Needlal U15, Needlal W15, ...
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Disease relevance of dioxocerium

  • The opaline gland is a large multivesicular structure, which is innervated by at least three large identified motor neurons located within the right pleural ganglion (28) [1].

Psychiatry related information on dioxocerium

  • Ink stimulates appetitive and ingestive behavior, opaline can elicit appetitive behavior but can also inhibit ingestion and evoke escape responses, and both stimulate grooming [2].

High impact information on dioxocerium

  • The results suggest a modulatory role for serotonin in opaline secretion similar to the one it plays in other neural systems in Aplysia [1].
  • Like the ink motor neurons, the opaline motor neurons have high resting potentials, are electrically coupled, and have no spontaneous spike activity [3].
  • Also, after inhalation of crystalline particles that are insoluble or poorly soluble in water such as the illites (phyllosilicates), ceric oxides (opaline), and industrial uranium oxides (U3O8), the small crystals are captured by the alveolar macrophage lysosomes and transformed over time into an amorphous form [4].
  • Ink and opaline are ejected by a series of coordinated pumping movements of the mantle, gill, and parapodia that closely resemble triggered 'respiratory pumping' or 'Interneuron II' episodes (Kupfermann and Kandel 1969; Byrne and Koester 1978; Hening 1982) [5].
  • For 40 million years, diatoms have dominated the reverse weathering of silica on Earth. These photosynthetic protists take up dissolved silicic acid from the water and precipitate opaline silica to form their cell wall [6].

Biological context of dioxocerium

  • Since the genotype of the opaline mink differs from the other mink studied, only in their combination at the pastel (b) and moyle (m) loci, their bb mm genotype could be assumed to be responsible for the increase in testicular steroids [7].

Anatomical context of dioxocerium


  1. Neurotransmitters producing and modulating opaline gland contraction in Aplysia californica. Tritt, S.H., Byrne, J.H. J. Neurophysiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Sea hares use novel antipredatory chemical defenses. Kicklighter, C.E., Shabani, S., Johnson, P.M., Derby, C.D. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Motor controls of opaline secretion in Aplysia californica. Tritt, S.H., Byrne, J.H. J. Neurophysiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of alveolar macrophage lysosomes in metal detoxification. Berry, J.P., Zhang, L., Galle, P., Ansoborlo, E., Hengé-Napoli, M.H., Donnadieu-Claraz, M. Microsc. Res. Tech. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Directional control and the functional organization of defensive responses in Aplysia. Walters, E.T., Erickson, M.T. J. Comp. Physiol. A (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. A proton buffering role for silica in diatoms. Milligan, A.J., Morel, F.M. Science (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic determination of coat color affects testicular steroidogenesis in the Mustela vison. Amador, A.G., Sundqvist, C., Bartke, A. Rev. Esp. Fisiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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