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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NUZA3     uranium

Synonyms: AC1L9N2H
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Disease relevance of uranium


Psychiatry related information on uranium

  • Wartime exposures implicated as possible causes of subsequent symptoms include oil well fire smoke, infectious diseases, vaccines, chemical and biological warfare agents, depleted uranium munitions and post-traumatic stress disorder [6].
  • The main effects of uranium on the sleep-wake cycle were an increase in rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) and theta band power during the light period, as early as Day 30 after exposure commenced [7].
  • METHODS: The titer of 16/6 Id was determined by ELISA in sera of uranium miners exposed to heavy quartz dust: 15 developed definite and 12 probable SLE, 34 had clinical symptoms, and 27 had only serological signs (medium to high titer anti-dsDNA antibodies) of possible connective tissue disease (CTD) development [8].
  • Glomerular function was significantly better among the uranium workers than among the referents, though this may have been the result of differences in the physical activity of the groups during the collection period [9].
  • Hazard visibility and occupational health problem solving the case of the uranium industry [10].

High impact information on uranium

  • Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters [11].
  • To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984 [11].
  • Screening for putative radon-specific p53 mutation hotspot in German uranium miners [12].
  • This genome sequence represents a substantial step toward the elucidation of pathways for reduction (and bioremediation) of pollutants such as uranium and chromium and offers a new starting point for defining this organism's complex anaerobic respiration [13].
  • Mycelia of industrially steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium, binding also other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of uranium


Biological context of uranium


Anatomical context of uranium

  • Epidemiologic evidence indicates that in addition to tobacco use other factors are causally related to the development of cancers of the oral cavity, lung and esophagus and that these factors (e.g., radon exposure in uranium miners who smoke) can act synergistically [24].
  • In thin sections of resting lymphocytes selectively stained for DNA, the extended non-nucleosomal chromatin was located in a solitary, large agglomerate which corresponds to the solitary, large fibrillar centre observed in uranium-lead-stained sections [25].
  • In vitro dissolution of uranium oxide by baboon alveolar macrophages [26].
  • The results of in vitro chemical and cellular tests were compared, with four main conclusions: a good reproducibility of the three tests in Eagle's basal medium the effect of hydration state on solubility, the classification of UO3 in terms of ICRP solubility criteria, and the ability of macrophages to decrease uranium solubility in medium [27].
  • The aim of this work was to assess the influence of uranium speciation on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by using both computer speciation modeling and direct measurement of the fractional absorption in vivo in rats after ingestion of five different samples of contaminated water [28].

Associations of uranium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of uranium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of uranium


  1. Uranium mining and lung cancer in Navajo men. Samet, J.M., Kutvirt, D.M., Waxweiler, R.J., Key, C.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Uranium bioaccumulation by a Citrobacter sp. as a result of enzymically mediated growth of polycrystalline HUO2PO4. Macaskie, L.E., Empson, R.M., Cheetham, A.K., Grey, C.P., Skarnulis, A.J. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers after ionizing radiation therapy. For The Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. Karagas, M.R., McDonald, J.A., Greenberg, E.R., Stukel, T.A., Weiss, J.E., Baron, J.A., Stevens, M.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Toxicity of depleted uranium. Priest, N.D. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystal structure of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Takusagawa, F., Kamitori, S., Misaki, S., Markham, G.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Managing future Gulf War Syndromes: international lessons and new models of care. Engel, C.C., Hyams, K.C., Scott, K. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Changes in sleep-wake cycle after chronic exposure to uranium in rats. Lestaevel, P., Bussy, C., Paquet, F., Dhieux, B., Clarençon, D., Houpert, P., Gourmelon, P. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The pathogenic 16/6 idiotype in patients with silica associated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and uranium miners with increased risk for development of SLE. Conrad, K., Levy, Y., Blank, M., Mehlhorn, J., Frank, K.H., Roch, B., Shoenfeld, Y. J. Rheumatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Renal toxicity in uranium mill workers. Thun, M.J., Baker, D.B., Steenland, K., Smith, A.B., Halperin, W., Berl, T. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Hazard visibility and occupational health problem solving the case of the uranium industry. Pearson, J. Journal of community health. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters. Roscoe, R.J., Steenland, K., Halperin, W.E., Beaumont, J.J., Waxweiler, R.J. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Screening for putative radon-specific p53 mutation hotspot in German uranium miners. Bartsch, H., Hollstein, M., Mustonen, R., Schmidt, J., Spiethoff, A., Wesch, H., Wiethege, T., Müller, K.M. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Heidelberg, J.F., Seshadri, R., Haveman, S.A., Hemme, C.L., Paulsen, I.T., Kolonay, J.F., Eisen, J.A., Ward, N., Methe, B., Brinkac, L.M., Daugherty, S.C., Deboy, R.T., Dodson, R.J., Durkin, A.S., Madupu, R., Nelson, W.C., Sullivan, S.A., Fouts, D., Haft, D.H., Selengut, J., Peterson, J.D., Davidsen, T.M., Zafar, N., Zhou, L., Radune, D., Dimitrov, G., Hance, M., Tran, K., Khouri, H., Gill, J., Utterback, T.R., Feldblyum, T.V., Wall, J.D., Voordouw, G., Fraser, C.M. Nat. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Advances in biosorption of metals: selection of biomass types. Volesky, B. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Radon and other natural radionuclides in drinking water and risk of stomach cancer: a case-cohort study in Finland. Auvinen, A., Salonen, L., Pekkanen, J., Pukkala, E., Ilus, T., Kurttio, P. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Modified Steiner method for the demonstration of spirochetes in tissue. Elias, J.M., Greene, C. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Citrate Does Not Change Uranium Chemical Speciation in Cell Culture Medium but Increases Its Toxicity and Accumulation in NRK-52E Cells. Carri??re, M., Thiebault, C., Milgram, S., Avoscan, L., Proux, O., Gouget, B. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Microbial populations stimulated for hexavalent uranium reduction in uranium mine sediment. Suzuki, Y., Kelly, S.D., Kemner, K.M., Banfield, J.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Structure determination of OppA at 2.3 A resolution using multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion methods. Glover, I.D., Denny, R.C., Nguti, N.D., McSweeney, S.M., Kinder, S.H., Thompson, A.W., Dodson, E.J., Wilkinson, A.J., Tame, J.R. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutations of p53 and ras genes in radon-associated lung cancer from uranium miners. Vähäkangas, K.H., Samet, J.M., Metcalf, R.A., Welsh, J.A., Bennett, W.P., Lane, D.P., Harris, C.C. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Promoter hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene: more common in lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers than smokers and associated with tumor progression. Pulling, L.C., Divine, K.K., Klinge, D.M., Gilliland, F.D., Kang, T., Schwartz, A.G., Bocklage, T.J., Belinsky, S.A. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Depleted and natural uranium: chemistry and toxicological effects. Craft, E., Abu-Qare, A., Flaherty, M., Garofolo, M., Rincavage, H., Abou-Donia, M. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn chelates offer a medicinal chemistry approach to overcoming radiation injury. Sorenson, J.R. Current medicinal chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of the evidence that tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) cause cancer in humans. Preston-Martin, S. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Spatial redistribution of ribosomal chromatin in the fibrillar centres of human circulating lymphocytes after stimulation of transcription. Derenzini, M., Farabegoli, F., Pession, A., Novello, F. Exp. Cell Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. In vitro dissolution of uranium oxide by baboon alveolar macrophages. Poncy, J.L., Metivier, H., Dhilly, M., Verry, M., Masse, R. Environ. Health Perspect. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. In vitro chemical and cellular tests applied to uranium trioxide with different hydration states. Ansoborlo, E., Chalabreysse, J., Hengé-Napoli, M.H., Pujol, E. Environ. Health Perspect. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. The chemical speciation of uranium in water does not influence its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Frelon, S., Houpert, P., Lepetit, D., Paquet, F. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Lung cancer mortality (1950-80) in relation to radon daughter exposure in a cohort of workers at the Eldorado Port Radium uranium mine: possible modification of risk by exposure rate. Howe, G.R., Nair, R.C., Newcombe, H.B., Miller, A.B., Burch, J.D., Abbatt, J.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Nuclear bodies in the maturing egg cell of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum. Bell, P.R. J. Cell. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Chelating agents used for plutonium and uranium removal in radiation emergency medicine. Fukuda, S. Current medicinal chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Determination of 226Ra in mineral drinking waters by alpha liquid scintillation with rejection of beta-gamma emitters. Aupiais, J., Fayolle, C., Gilbert, P., Dacheux, N. Anal. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular diversity and characterization of nitrite reductase gene fragments (nirK and nirS) from nitrate- and uranium-contaminated groundwater. Yan, T., Fields, M.W., Wu, L., Zu, Y., Tiedje, J.M., Zhou, J. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Multiplicity of abnormal promoter methylation in lung adenocarcinomas from smokers and never smokers. Divine, K.K., Pulling, L.C., Marron-Terada, P.G., Liechty, K.C., Kang, T., Schwartz, A.G., Bocklage, T.J., Coons, T.A., Gilliland, F.D., Belinsky, S.A. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with depleted uranium on CYP3A and associated nuclear receptors PXR and CAR in the rat. Souidi, M., Gueguen, Y., Linard, C., Dudoignon, N., Grison, S., Baudelin, C., Marquette, C., Gourmelon, P., Aigueperse, J., Dublineau, I. Toxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Uranium induces TNF alpha secretion and MAPK activation in a rat alveolar macrophage cell line. Gazin, V., Kerdine, S., Grillon, G., Pallardy, M., Raoul, H. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Lung cancer mortality (1950-80) in relation to radon daughter exposure in a cohort of workers at the Eldorado Beaverlodge uranium mine. Howe, G.R., Nair, R.C., Newcombe, H.B., Miller, A.B., Abbatt, J.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  38. The oncogenic transforming potential of the passage of single alpha particles through mammalian cell nuclei. Miller, R.C., Randers-Pehrson, G., Geard, C.R., Hall, E.J., Brenner, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Uranium-loaded apoferritin with antibodies attached: molecular design for uranium neutron-capture therapy. Hainfeld, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Glutathione S-transferase P1 and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase polymorphisms are associated with aberrant promoter methylation of P16(INK4a) and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in sputum. Gilliland, F.D., Harms, H.J., Crowell, R.E., Li, Y.F., Willink, R., Belinsky, S.A. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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