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Disease relevance of Diatoms


High impact information on Diatoms

  • Here we analyse a continuous sediment record from Lake Baikal, Siberia, which reveals a virtually continuous interglacial diatom assemblage, a stable littoral benthic diatom assemblage and lithogenic sediments with 'interglacial' characteristics for the period from MIS 15a to MIS 11 (from about 580 to 380 kyr ago) [6].
  • Photosynthesis. Carbon fix for a diatom [7].
  • Kinetic and growth studies have shown that diatoms can avoid CO2 limitation, but the biochemistry of the underlying mechanisms remains unknown [8].
  • Instead, it appears to have precipitated early in diagenesis in algal cysts and other pore spaces, with silica derived from the dissolution of opaline skeletons of planktonic organisms, such as radiolaria and diatoms [9].
  • A set of polycationic peptides (called silaffins) isolated from diatom cell walls were shown to generate networks of silica nanospheres within seconds when added to a solution of silicic acid [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Diatoms

  • Uptake kinetics of monomethylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) were measured for two species of green algae (Selenastrum capricomutum and Cosmarium botrytis), one blue-green algae (Schizothrix calcicola), and one diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii), algal species that are commonly found in natural surface waters [11].
  • Studies are described in which ethyl benzene (EB) was tested to determine its acute toxicity to three marine organisms, Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia), mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), and diatoms (Skeletonema costatum), and to one freshwater algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) [12].
  • In this diatom, the concurring release of ligands, enhanced malondialdehyde production, increasing numbers of presexual cells and cell enlargement may serve as early-warning signals for Cu toxicity, rather than metal-specific phytochelatins that appeared at a stage when cell division was already clearly inhibited [13].
  • Under SEM-EDS, the benthic algae from seriously polluted rivers (dominant by the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria chalybea, green algae Euglena acus and diatom Nitzschia palea under light microscopes) revealed the elemental compositions of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cr, Ti, and that of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe [14].

Biological context of Diatoms

  • Here we identify smpB in the nuclear genomes of both a diatom and a red alga encoding a signal for import into the plastid, where mature SmpB could activate tmRNA [15].
  • Characterization of gene clusters encoding the fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum [16].
  • Furthermore we show that treatment of the cells with Brefeldin A arrests protein transport into the diatom plastids suggesting that a vesicular transport step within the plastid membranes may occur [17].
  • To assess the feasibility of expressing non-green algal Rubiscos in higher-plant chloroplasts, we inserted the rbcLS operons from the rhodophyte Galdieria sulphuraria and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum into the inverted repeats of the plastid genome of tobacco, leaving the tobacco rbcL gene unaltered [18].
  • In contrast, diatom cells were arrested either in the G1 or G2 stage of the cell cycle in the dark [19].

Anatomical context of Diatoms

  • The diatom FCP preproteins have a bipartite presequence that is necessary to enable transport into the four membrane-bound diatom plastids, but similar to chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins there is apparently no presequence present for targeting to the thylakoid membrane [20].
  • Compartment-specific isoforms of TPI and GAPDH are imported into diatom mitochondria as a fusion protein: evidence in favor of a mitochondrial origin of the eukaryotic glycolytic pathway [21].
  • Evaluation of silicon and germanium retention in rat tissues and diatoms during cell and organelle preparation for electron probe microanalysis [22].
  • Domoic acid, a neurotoxic amino acid produced by the marine diatom Nitchia pungens multiseries, was determined in samples of anchovies, razor clams, mussels, crab, rat serum, urine and feces by HPLC with UV absorption and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometric (MS) detection [23].
  • Polysaccharide-specific staining techniques have revealed the existence and high abundance of gel-like mucilaginous particles formed from the polysaccharide exudates of diatoms [24].

Associations of Diatoms with chemical compounds

  • A new calcium binding glycoprotein family constitutes a major diatom cell wall component [25].
  • Here it is demonstrated that EDTA treatment removes most of the proteins present in mature cell walls of the marine diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis [25].
  • A biological function for cadmium in marine diatoms [26].
  • In the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, used as a model organism, these pigments also participate in xanthophyll cycling, and their accumulation depends on de novo synthesis of carotenoids and on deepoxidase activity [27].
  • The biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase domains, respectively, show approximately 72%, 50%, and 65% sequence similarity to those of animal, diatom, and yeast ACCase sequences [28].

Gene context of Diatoms


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Diatoms


  1. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene expression and diversity of Lake Erie planktonic microorganisms. Xu, H.H., Tabita, F.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Partitioning of monomethylmercury between freshwater algae and water. Miles, C.J., Moye, H.A., Phlips, E.J., Sargent, B. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of ultraviolet-adaptation of a marine diatom in photoenhanced toxicity of acridine. Wiegman, S., Barranguet, C., Spijkerman, E., Kraak, M.H., Admiraal, W. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations. Tryphonas, L., Truelove, J., Todd, E., Nera, E., Iverson, F. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of lipophilic pigments from a phototrophic microbial mat community by high performance liquid chromatography. Palmisano, A.C., Cronin, S.E., Des Marais, D.J. J. Microbiol. Methods (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Muted climate variations in continental Siberia during the mid-Pleistocene epoch. Prokopenko, A.A., Williams, D.F., Kuzmin, M.I., Karabanov, E.B., Khursevich, G.K., Peck, J.A. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Photosynthesis. Carbon fix for a diatom. Riebesell, U. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Unicellular C4 photosynthesis in a marine diatom. Reinfelder, J.R., Kraepiel, A.M., Morel, F.M. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Diagenetic origin of quartz silt in mudstones and implications for silica cycling. Schieber, J., Krinsley, D., Riciputi, L. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Polycationic peptides from diatom biosilica that direct silica nanosphere formation. Kröger, N., Deutzmann, R., Sumper, M. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Kinetics and uptake mechanisms for monomethylmercury between freshwater algae and water. Moye, H.A., Miles, C.J., Phlips, E.J., Sargent, B., Merritt, K.K. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Strategies employed to determine the acute aquatic toxicity of ethyl benzene, a highly volatile, poorly water-soluble chemical. Masten, L.W., Boeri, R.L., Walker, J.D. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Interactions of algal ligands, metal complexation and availability, and cell responses of the diatom Ditylum brightwellii with a gradual increase in copper. Rijstenbil, J.W., Gerringa, L.J. Aquat. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Benthic algae as monitors of heavy metals in various polluted rivers by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer. Lai, S.D., Chen, P.C., Hsu, H.K. Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Function of the SmpB tail in transfer-messenger RNA translation revealed by a nucleus-encoded form. Jacob, Y., Sharkady, S.M., Bhardwaj, K., Sanda, A., Williams, K.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of gene clusters encoding the fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Bhaya, D., Grossman, A.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and characterization of a new conserved motif within the presequence of proteins targeted into complex diatom plastids. Kilian, O., Kroth, P.G. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Form I Rubiscos from non-green algae are expressed abundantly but not assembled in tobacco chloroplasts. Whitney, S.M., Baldet, P., Hudson, G.S., Andrews, T.J. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Light and dark control of the cell cycle in two marine phytoplankton species. Vaulot, D., Olson, R.J., Chisholm, S.W. Exp. Cell Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Diatom fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding protein (FCP) and land plant light-harvesting proteins use a similar pathway for thylakoid membrane Insertion. Lang, M., Kroth, P.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Compartment-specific isoforms of TPI and GAPDH are imported into diatom mitochondria as a fusion protein: evidence in favor of a mitochondrial origin of the eukaryotic glycolytic pathway. Liaud, M.F., Lichtlé, C., Apt, K., Martin, W., Cerff, R. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of silicon and germanium retention in rat tissues and diatoms during cell and organelle preparation for electron probe microanalysis. Mehard, C.W., Volcani, B.E. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparison of UV absorption and electrospray mass spectrometry for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of domoic acid in shellfish and biological samples. Lawrence, J.F., Lau, B.P., Cleroux, C., Lewis, D. Journal of chromatography. A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. The potential role of particulate diatom exudates in forming nuisance mucilaginous scums. Alldredge, A.L. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. A new calcium binding glycoprotein family constitutes a major diatom cell wall component. Kröger, N., Bergsdorf, C., Sumper, M. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. A biological function for cadmium in marine diatoms. Lane, T.W., Morel, F.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Algae displaying the diadinoxanthin cycle also possess the violaxanthin cycle. Lohr, M., Wilhelm, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning, characterization, and elicitation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from alfalfa. Shorrosh, B.S., Dixon, R.A., Ohlrogge, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Cloning and expression of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL and rbcS genes from the marine diatom Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1. Hwang, S.R., Tabita, F.R. Plant Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. A transcriptional fusion of genes encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and enolase in dinoflagellates. Takishita, K., Patron, N.J., Ishida, K., Maruyama, T., Keeling, P.J. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Distribution of cognates of group II introns detected in mitochondrial cox1 genes of a diatom and a haptophyte. Ehara, M., Watanabe, K.I., Ohama, T. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. A novel PCR method for identifying plankton in cases of death by drowning. Abe, S., Suto, M., Nakamura, H., Gunji, H., Hiraiwa, K., Suzuki, T., Itoh, T., Kochi, H., Hoshiai, G. Medicine, science, and the law. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Real-time PCR quantification of rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) mRNA in diatoms and pelagophytes. Wawrik, B., Paul, J.H., Tabita, F.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Localisation of fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding polypeptides of the centric diatom Cyclotella cryptica by immuno-electron microscopy. Westermann, M., Rhiel, E. Protoplasma (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Hemolytic activity in extracts of the diatom Nitzschia. Rangel, M., Malpezzi, E.L., Susini, S.M., de Freitas, J.C. Toxicon (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Immuno-electron microscopic quantification of the fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding polypeptides Fcp2, Fcp4, and Fcp6 of Cyclotella cryptica grown under low- and high-light intensities. Becker, F., Rhiel, E. Int. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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