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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Appetitive Behavior

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Disease relevance of Appetitive Behavior

  • Since AgrP and the Pomc-derived peptide, alpha-MSH, are functional antagonists at melanocortin 4 receptors in the hypothalamic regulation of appetitive behavior, these results show that robust anorexigenic melanocortin signaling, may contribute to the failure-to-thrive in PWS neonatal mice [1].

Psychiatry related information on Appetitive Behavior


High impact information on Appetitive Behavior

  • The finding that the minimal effective dose of cholecystokinin in suppressing stress-induced appetitive behavior is smaller after peripheral than central administration suggests that the peptide is acting on peripheral, as opposed to central nervous system, substrates [3].
  • The gut peptide ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been implicated not only in the regulation of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion but in a number of endocrine and nonendocrine functions, including appetitive behavior and carbohydrate substrate utilization [4].
  • A substance in rabbit milk, 2-methylbut-2-enal (2MB2), has been identified as a pheromone that triggers stereotypical searching behavior from rabbit pups [5].
  • Ink stimulates appetitive and ingestive behavior, opaline can elicit appetitive behavior but can also inhibit ingestion and evoke escape responses, and both stimulate grooming [6].
  • Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) appears to modulate appetitive behavior, and in rodents, anxiety-related behavior [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Appetitive Behavior

  • Rats exposed to chronic stress show a low dopamine (DA) output in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS) and do not acquire an appetitive behavior sustained by the earning of vanilla sugar (VS) made contingent on the choice of one of the two divergent arms of a Y-maze (VS-sustained appetitive behavior, VAB), while control rats consistently do [8].
  • Unlike the control rats who reacted to the removal of the salient stimulus by reexploring its previous location, lidocaine-injected subjects did not display any similar searching behavior [9].
  • Effects of long-term acetyl-L-carnitine administration in rats--II: Protection against the disrupting effect of stress on the acquisition of appetitive behavior [8].
  • Impaired appetitive behavior in socially stressed rats was not accompanied by a decreased consumption of the 5% sucrose solution in the anticipatory tests [10].
  • Thus, it was studied whether rats fed a diet containing lithium would develop an appetitive behavior induced by a pure hedonic stimulus [11].

Biological context of Appetitive Behavior


Gene context of Appetitive Behavior

  • This work identifies a novel hypothalamic-AcSh circuit that influences appetitive behavior and mediates the antidepressant activity of MCH1R antagonists [15].
  • BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), are involved in appetitive behavior [16].
  • Because of its central role in the neuromodulation of appetitive behaviors, the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) has received considerable scrutiny as a possible candidate that may affect susceptibility to additive behaviors--especially alcoholism [17].
  • Therefore, we tested whether systemic ghrelin injections (3, 30, and 200 mg/kg) would stimulate these appetitive behaviors using a running wheel-based food delivery system coupled with simulated burrow housing [18].
  • Results of Exp-1 and Exp-2 indicated that tiagabine can reduce appetitive behavior for ethanol reward with no evidence of tolerance upon chronic exposure [19].


  1. Anorexigenic melanocortin signaling in the hypothalamus is augmented in association with failure-to-thrive in a transgenic mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome. Ge, Y., Ohta, T., Driscoll, D.J., Nicholls, R.D., Kalra, S.P. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of lithium chloride-induced aversion on appetitive and consummatory behavior. Wolgin, D.L., Wade, J.V. Behav. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Cholecystokinin inhibits tail pinch-induced eating in rats. Nemeroff, C.B., Osbahr, A.J., Bissette, G., Jahnke, G., Lipton, M.A., Prange, A.J. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Absence of ghrelin protects against early-onset obesity. Wortley, K.E., del Rincon, J.P., Murray, J.D., Garcia, K., Iida, K., Thorner, M.O., Sleeman, M.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Got milk? A pheromonal message for newborn rabbits. Luo, M. Bioessays (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Sea hares use novel antipredatory chemical defenses. Kicklighter, C.E., Shabani, S., Johnson, P.M., Derby, C.D. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. CSF cholecystokinin octapeptide in patients with bulimia nervosa and in normal comparison subjects. Lydiard, R.B., Brewerton, T.D., Fossey, M.D., Laraia, M.T., Stuart, G., Beinfeld, M.C., Ballenger, J.C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of long-term acetyl-L-carnitine administration in rats--II: Protection against the disrupting effect of stress on the acquisition of appetitive behavior. Masi, F., Leggio, B., Nanni, G., Scheggi, S., De Montis, M.G., Tagliamonte, A., Grappi, S., Gambarana, C. Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The effects of reversible inactivations of the hippocampus on exploratory activity and spatial memory. Thinus-Blanc, C., Save, E., Poucet, B., Buhot, M.C. Hippocampus. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Imipramine restores the long-term impairment of appetitive behavior in socially stressed rats. Von Frijtag, J.C., Van den Bos, R., Spruijt, B.M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Acquisition of an appetitive behavior reverses the effects of long-term treatment with lithium in rats. Masi, F., Scheggi, S., Mangiavacchi, S., Romeo, A., Tagliamonte, A., De Montis, M.G., Gambarana, C. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation. Davidson, T.L., Kanoski, S.E., Tracy, A.L., Walls, E.K., Clegg, D., Benoit, S.C. Peptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Augmentation of dietary fat preference by chronic, but not acute, hypercorticosteronemia. Prasad, C., delaHoussaye, A.J., Prasad, A., Mizuma, H. Life Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A peptidergic basis for sexual behavior in mammals. Smock, T., Albeck, D., Stark, P. Prog. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. The hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone acts in the nucleus accumbens to modulate feeding behavior and forced-swim performance. Georgescu, D., Sears, R.M., Hommel, J.D., Barrot, M., Bolaños, C.A., Marsh, D.J., Bednarek, M.A., Bibb, J.A., Maratos-Flier, E., Nestler, E.J., DiLeone, R.J. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the ventral midbrain-nucleus accumbens pathway: a role in depression. Eisch, A.J., Bolaños, C.A., de Wit, J., Simonak, R.D., Pudiak, C.M., Barrot, M., Verhaagen, J., Nestler, E.J. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Linkage disequilibria at the D2 dopamine receptor locus (DRD2) in alcoholics and controls. Suarez, B.K., Parsian, A., Hampe, C.L., Todd, R.D., Reich, T., Cloninger, C.R. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Peripheral ghrelin injections stimulate food intake, foraging, and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. Keen-Rhinehart, E., Bartness, T.J. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Tiagabine reduces ethanol reward in C57BL/6 mice under acute and chronic administration regimens. Nguyen, S.A., Deleon, C.P., Malcolm, R.J., Middaugh, L.D. Synapse (2005) [Pubmed]
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