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Chemical Compound Review

leucine     2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid

Synonyms: Leucin, Leuzin, Hleu, DL-Leucine, POLY-L-LEUCINE, ...
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Disease relevance of leucine

  • Overall, the V89L variant was associated with prostate cancer; the OR for men with the leucine-leucine (LL) genotype compared to men with the valine-valine (VV) genotype was 4.47 (95% CI, 1.24-16.18) [1].

High impact information on leucine

  • Mutation of a single conserved leucine (L242) of the leucine zipper motif also eliminated the ability of PE38 to augment apoptosis induced by IE1 [2].
  • The results of this ELISA demonstrated that the MAb MM6.15 reacts only with human synthetic peptides and that the critical component of the MAb recognition is made up of the amino-acid sequence LVAHKL (residues 963-968 of the MDR1-P-glycoprotein) with histidine (H), lysine (K) and possibly leucine (L), key residues of this immunogenic domain [3].
  • The W, leucine (L), and asparagine (N) mutants at Y83 and the L mutant at W84 showed remarkable enhancement of transglycosylation activity and complementary decreases in native hydrolysis activity [4].
  • The other plasmid, pSVA3, contains a cDNA that encodes a novel mutant form of the enzyme in which Leu22 has been changed to Phe [Melera et al., Mol. Cell Biol. 4 (1984) 38-48] [5].
  • Conceptuses were cultured for 24 hr in the presence of 3H-labeled Met or Leu, and the incorporation of radiolabel into the embryo and visceral yolk sac was measured [6].

Biological context of leucine

  • The overall distribution of the V/V, V/L, and L/L genotypes was 47.5%, 42.5%, and 10.0%, respectively [7].
  • Whole body Leu kinetics were the same for both routes of amino acid administration [8].
  • Aminoacylation of the "internal" 2'hydroxyl groups of poly(A) with the imidazolide of racemic DL-leucine resulted in the formation of an enantiomeric excess of the D-ester, whereas aminoacylation with the imidazolide of racemic N-3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-DL-leucine gave an enantiomeric excess of the L-ester [9].

Anatomical context of leucine


Gene context of leucine

  • CONCLUSIONS: Men who have the V allele of the SRD5A2 gene have a twofold increase in the risk of prostate cancer development and an additional twofold increase in the risk of progression compared with men with the L/L genotype [7].
  • Oac1p is important for leucine biosynthesis on fermentable carbon sources catalyzing the export of alpha-IPM, probably in exchange for oxalacetate [11].


  1. Associations between polymorphisms in the steroid 5-alpha reductase type II (SRD5A2) gene and benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Salam, M.T., Ursin, G., Skinner, E.C., Dessissa, T., Reichardt, J.K. Urol. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The baculovirus PE38 protein augments apoptosis induced by transactivator IE1. Prikhod'ko, E.A., Miller, L.K. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. P-glycoprotein epitope mapping. II. The murine monoclonal antibody MM6.15 to human multidrug-resistant cells binds with three distinct loops in the MDR1-P-glycoprotein extracellular domain. Cianfriglia, M., Romagnoli, G., Tombesi, M., Poloni, F., Falasca, G., Di Modugno, F., Castagna, M., Chersi, A. Int. J. Cancer (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Roles of the aromatic residues conserved in the active center of Saccharomycopsis alpha-amylase for transglycosylation and hydrolysis activity. Matsui, I., Yoneda, S., Ishikawa, K., Miyairi, S., Fukui, S., Umeyama, H., Honda, K. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Construction of a dominant selectable marker using a novel dihydrofolate reductase. Hussain, A., Lewis, D., Yu, M., Melera, P.W. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of methionine supplement on methionine incorporation in rat embryos cultured in vitro. Pugarelli, J.E., Brent, R.L., Lloyd, J.B. Teratology (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. V89L polymorphism of type-2, 5-alpha reductase enzyme gene predicts prostate cancer presence and progression. Nam, R.K., Toi, A., Vesprini, D., Ho, M., Chu, W., Harvie, S., Sweet, J., Trachtenberg, J., Jewett, M.A., Narod, S.A. Urology (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Splanchnic and whole body L-[1-13C,15N]leucine kinetics in relation to enteral and parenteral amino acid supply. Yu, Y.M., Burke, J.F., Vogt, J.A., Chambers, L., Young, V.R. Am. J. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. On the stereoselective aminoacylation of RNA. Usher, D.A., Needels, M.C. Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity: enhancement by blockade of degradative processes in promethazine-treated rats. Fernández, G., Villarruel, M.C., Bernacchi, A., de Castro, C.R., Castro, J.A. British journal of experimental pathology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. alpha-Isopropylmalate, a leucine biosynthesis intermediate in yeast, is transported by the mitochondrial oxalacetate carrier. Marobbio, C.M., Giannuzzi, G., Paradies, E., Pierri, C.L., Palmieri, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
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