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Gene Review

gpc4  -  glypican 4

Danio rerio

Synonyms: SO:0000704, chunp6920, gpc4,, gpc4/6, gpc6, ...
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High impact information on kny

  • Here, we investigated whether genes that regulate cell movements during gastrulation [no tail (ntl)/brachyury, knypek (kny) and pipetail (ppt)/wnt5] interact to regulate posterior body morphogenesis [1].
  • To obtain information on the origin of the positional cues provided to the germ cells by somatic tissues during their migration, we analyzed the migration pattern in mutants, including spadetail, swirl, chordino, floating head, cloche, knypek and no isthmus [2].
  • To determine how prospective somites physically segregate from each other, we used time-lapse microscopy to analyze the mechanics underlying early somitogenesis in wild-type zebrafish and in the mutants trilobite(m209) (tri), knypek(m119) (kny), and kny;tri, which are defective in convergent extension during gastrulation [3].
  • For instance, several mutants, including silberblick, knypek and trilobite, exhibit defects in morphogenesis during gastrulation [4].
  • Furthermore, tangential neuronal migration occurs normally in the gastrulation mutant knypek, indicating that the trilobite neuron phenotype does not arise nonspecifically from aberrant gastrulation-associated movements [5].

Biological context of kny

  • Convergent extension movement defects in knypek are associated with abnormal cell polarity, as mutant cells fail to elongate and align medio-laterally [6].

Associations of kny with chemical compounds

  • Positional cloning reveals that knypek encodes a member of the glypican family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans [6].

Regulatory relationships of kny

  • Furthermore, tri and kny have overlapping functions in establishing proper alignment of the anterior neural plate and midline cells expressing shh and twhh genes when the partitioning of the eye primordium takes place [7].

Other interactions of kny

  • We furnish methods for the morphometric analysis of embryonic shape and organ rudiments in live and fixed embryos, and present data collected from live wild-type, dorsoventral patterning (somitabun and chordino) and convergence and extension (knypek and trilobite) classes of mutants [8].


  1. No tail co-operates with non-canonical Wnt signaling to regulate posterior body morphogenesis in zebrafish. Marlow, F., Gonzalez, E.M., Yin, C., Rojo, C., Solnica-Krezel, L. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of tissues and patterning events required for distinct steps in early migration of zebrafish primordial germ cells. Weidinger, G., Wolke, U., Köprunner, M., Klinger, M., Raz, E. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Somites in zebrafish doubly mutant for knypek and trilobite form without internal mesenchymal cells or compaction. Henry, C.A., Hall, L.A., Burr Hille, M., Solnica-Krezel, L., Cooper, M.S. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Zebrafish gastrulation movements: bridging cell and developmental biology. Heisenberg, C.P., Tada, M. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The Zebrafish trilobite gene is essential for tangential migration of branchiomotor neurons. Bingham, S., Higashijima, S., Okamoto, H., Chandrasekhar, A. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The zebrafish glypican knypek controls cell polarity during gastrulation movements of convergent extension. Topczewski, J., Sepich, D.S., Myers, D.C., Walker, C., Amores, A., Lele, Z., Hammerschmidt, M., Postlethwait, J., Solnica-Krezel, L. Dev. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional interactions of genes mediating convergent extension, knypek and trilobite, during the partitioning of the eye primordium in zebrafish. Marlow, F., Zwartkruis, F., Malicki, J., Neuhauss, S.C., Abbas, L., Weaver, M., Driever, W., Solnica-Krezel, L. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of cell movements in zebrafish embryos: morphometrics and measuring movement of labeled cell populations in vivo. Sepich, D.S., Solnica-Krezel, L. Methods Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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