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Gene Review

flhD  -  transcriptional regulator FlhD

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2

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Disease relevance of flhD


High impact information on flhD

  • Furthermore, viable flagellin-deficient mutant organisms (fliC/fljB and flhD) failed to elicit IL-8 secretion when added apically to model intestinal epithelia [3].
  • QseBC activates transcription of flhDC, which is the master regulator for the flagella and motility genes and, in the absence of flhD, QseBC failed to activate the transcription of fliA [4].
  • Conversely, the flhD mutant exhibited diminished invasiveness for human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells, as well as a reduced capacity to induce fluid secretion and evoke a polymorphonuclear leukocyte response in the calf ligated-loop assay [5].
  • We found that the flhD mutant was more virulent than its parent in the mouse and displayed slightly faster net growth between 4 and 24 h of infection in mouse macrophages [5].
  • The class 2 operons are controlled positively by the class 1 genes, flhD and flhC [6].

Biological context of flhD


Other interactions of flhD

  • In the absence of FliA or in the presence of both FliA and its cognate anti-sigma factor FlgM, the flhD operon was autogenously repressed, whereas in the flgM mutant background it was autogenously activated in the presence of FliA [2].
  • More careful examination of transcription revealed that the fliA mutation reduces but does not eliminate the expression of these operons, whereas a mutation in the flhD operon, which encodes activator proteins for the class 2 operons, eliminates their expression [7].
  • Mutations in the cya, crp or hns gene reduced but did not eliminate flhD expression [2].


  1. Negative feedback from a Proteus class II flagellum export defect to the flhDC master operon controlling cell division and flagellum assembly. Furness, R.B., Fraser, G.M., Hay, N.A., Hughes, C. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Autogenous and global control of the flagellar master operon, flhD, in Salmonella typhimurium. Kutsukake, K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Salmonella typhimurium translocates flagellin across intestinal epithelia, inducing a proinflammatory response. Gewirtz, A.T., Simon, P.O., Schmitt, C.K., Taylor, L.J., Hagedorn, C.H., O'Brien, A.D., Neish, A.S., Madara, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Quorum sensing Escherichia coli regulators B and C (QseBC): a novel two-component regulatory system involved in the regulation of flagella and motility by quorum sensing in E. coli. Sperandio, V., Torres, A.G., Kaper, J.B. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Absence of all components of the flagellar export and synthesis machinery differentially alters virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in models of typhoid fever, survival in macrophages, tissue culture invasiveness, and calf enterocolitis. Schmitt, C.K., Ikeda, J.S., Darnell, S.C., Watson, P.R., Bispham, J., Wallis, T.S., Weinstein, D.L., Metcalf, E.S., O'Brien, A.D. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of the FliA-FlgM regulatory system on the transcriptional control of the flagellar regulon and flagellar formation in Salmonella typhimurium. Kutsukake, K., Iino, T. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Transcriptional analysis of the flgK and fliD operons of Salmonella typhimurium which encode flagellar hook-associated proteins. Kutsukake, K., Ide, N. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
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