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Gene Review

rIIB  -  membrane integrity protector

Enterobacteria phage T4

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Disease relevance of rIIB


High impact information on rIIB

  • Here, we show that ribosome frameshifting at a specific tryptophan codon during Trp-tRNA limitation accounts for suppression of a group of downstream frameshift alleles in the rIIB gene of bacteriophage T4 [4].
  • Frameshift mutations were induced by proflavin in the rIIB gene of bacteriophage T4. rIIB DNA from each of 48 independent frameshifts was inserted into M13mp8 and sequenced [5].
  • Two-thirds of the frameshifts (33/48) lie contiguous to one another in 10 base pairs of the rIIB sequence [5].
  • The target for regA-mediated action overlaps the translational initiation domain of the rIIB messenger [6].
  • Other phage-coded prereplicative proteins related to DNA replication and other phage functions such as the proteins coded by genes 32, 46, rIIA, and rIIB as well as many unidentified proteins were also consistently associated with the isolated fractions [7].

Biological context of rIIB

  • The synthesis of the protein product of the rIIB cistron continues for several minutes after rIIA protein synthesis ceases (O'Farrell and Gold, 1973) [8].
  • The two rII+ gene expressions might require different molar ratios of the rIIA and rIIB proteins [8].
  • Frequency of rII(+) recombinants was measured in two-factor crosses of the type i x ets1, where ets1 designates an insertion in the rIIB gene carrying the cleavage site for SegC and i's are rIIB or rIIA point mutations located at various distances (12-2040 bp) from the ets1 site [9].
  • Cloning the complete rIIB gene of bacteriophage T4 and some observations concerning its middle promoters [10].
  • We have manipulated the dispensable region of the rIIB gene of bacteriophage T4 in order to study the generation of deletions involving direct repeats [11].

Associations of rIIB with chemical compounds

  • In the in vitro translation system used in these studies, the rIIB protein synthesized at 25 degrees no longer contains the N-terminal formyl group whereas a large proportion of the formyl group is retained at 37 degrees [12].

Other interactions of rIIB

  • Among the major proteins obtained are the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the host and the products of T4 genes rIIA, rIIB, and 32 (DNA-"unwinding" protein) [13].
  • In addition, there are sequence similarities in the translation initiation regions of genes 44, 45, and rIIB, all of which are subject to regulation by regA protein [14].


  1. Spectrum of spontaneous frameshift mutations. Sequences of bacteriophage T4 rII gene frameshifts. Ripley, L.S., Clark, A., deBoer, J.G. J. Mol. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. The rIIA gene of bacteriophage T4. II. Regulation of its messenger RNA synthesis. Daegelen, P., Brody, E. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Bacteriophage T4 as a generalized DNA-cloning vehicle. Casna, N.J., Shub, D.A. Gene (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanism of ribosome frameshifting during translation of the genetic code. Weiss, R., Gallant, J. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Frameshift mutations produced by proflavin in bacteriophage T4: specificity within a hotspot. Ripley, L.S., Clark, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Translational regulation: identification of the site on bacteriophage T4 rIIB mRNA recognized by the regA gene function. Karam, J., Gold, L., Singer, B.S., Dawson, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Characteristics of a bacteriophage T4-induced complex synthesizing deoxyribonucleotides. Chiu, C.S., Cook, K.S., Greenberg, G.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of expression of the rII gene function of bacteriophage T4. Heere, L.J., Karam, J.D. J. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Double-strand break repair in bacteriophage t4: recombination effects of 3'-5' exonuclease mutations. Shcherbakov, V.P., Kudryashova, E.A., Shcherbakova, T.S., Sizova, S.T., Plugina, L.A. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning the complete rIIB gene of bacteriophage T4 and some observations concerning its middle promoters. Shinedling, S., Walker, L.T., Gold, L. J. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Deletion formation in bacteriophage T4. Singer, B.S., Westlye, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Bacteriophage T4 rIIB protein synthesis with a temperature-sensitive mutation in the rIIB initiation codon. Belin, D. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Intracellular DNA-protein complexes from bacteriophage T4-infected cells isolated by a rapid two-step procedure. Characterization and identification of the protein components. Manoil, C., Sinha, N., Alberts, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Bacteriophage T4 gene 44 DNA polymerase accessory protein. Sequences of gene 44 and its protein product. Spicer, E.K., Nossal, N.G., Williams, K.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
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