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MeSH Review

Bacteriophage T4

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Disease relevance of Bacteriophage T4

  • The discovery and characterization of a similar intron in the T4 phage thymidylate synthase gene (td) led to the finding of additional group 1 introns in other T4 genes and in genes of the related T2 and T6 phages [1].
  • Escherichia coli nucleoside diphosphate kinase interactions with T4 phage proteins of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and possible regulatory functions [2].
  • In a recent study, we showed that this is also true for Abutilon mosaic geminivirus (AbMV), but that this particular virus may also use a recombination-dependent replication (RDR) route in analogy to T4 phages [3].
  • Clones that expressed a capsid-binding 14-aa N-terminal peptide extension derivative of the HOC (highly antigenic outer capsid) protein for T4 phage hoc gene display were constructed by co-transformation with a linearized vector and a PCR-synthesized hoc gene [4].
  • Interaction of DNA-binding protein HU from Bacillus stearothermophilis (HUBst) with coliphage T2 DNA was investigated by observing an elongational flow-induced birefringence, Deltan, of a T2-phage DNA aqueous solution at various HU concentrations [5].

High impact information on Bacteriophage T4

  • The interrupted T4 phage td gene, which encodes thymidylate synthase, is the first known example of an intron-containing prokaryotic structural gene [6].
  • We identify an in vivo folding trap in the T4 phage td gene, caused by nine base pairs between a sequence element in the upstream exon of the td gene and another at the 3' end of the intron [7].
  • Methylation interference experiments reveal bases involved in three different catalytic functions of the T4-phage derived sunY self-splicing intron [8].
  • T4 phage gene uvsX product catalyzes homologous DNA pairing [9].
  • We have tested in vivo for T4 DNA polymerase involvement in nick processing, using T4 phage having DNA polymerases with altered ratios of exonuclease to polymerase activities [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Bacteriophage T4

  • In our initial screen of approximately 3 X 10(4) plaques from a T4 phage stock mutagenized with hydroxylamine, greater than 30 mutants that produce lysozyme activity resistant to high temperature incubation were found [11].
  • Thus, these insertions may arise from templated extension of the exposed 3' terminus by a DNA polymerase, followed by resealing of the strand, as shown previously for acridine-induced frameshifts in T4 phage [12].
  • The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and found to possess properties similar to T2 phage deoxycytidylate deaminase [13].
  • This inverting enzyme transfers glucose from UDP-glucose to the 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine bases of T4 phage DNA [14].
  • T4 phage gene 32 protein as a candidate organizing factor for the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate synthetase complex [15].

Biological context of Bacteriophage T4


Anatomical context of Bacteriophage T4

  • Polyribosome binding of rabbit globin messenger RNA and messenger ribonucleoprotein labelled with bacteriophage-T4 RNA ligase and 5'-[32P] phosphocytidine 3'-phosphate [21].
  • In this study, making use of the comet assay, we tried to find out if under conditions that maintain chromatin structure the DNA ligase from T4 phage is able to facilitate the rejoining of strand breaks with different end structures, induced by the restriction endonuclease MspI or bleomycin in living human lymphocytes in a nonproliferating state [22].

Gene context of Bacteriophage T4

  • The cd-containing fragment also contained all of gene 31 (Nivinskas, R., and Black, L. W. (1988) Gene (Amst.) 73, 251-257) and thus precisely locates the two genes relative to one another within the T4 phage genomic map [13].
  • The discovery of distant structural homology with several exonucleases, including T4 phage RNase H and flap endonuclease (FEN1), further suggests a likely function for PIN domains as Mg2+-dependent exonucleases, a hypothesis that we have confirmed in vitro [23].
  • Here, we show that growth of T4 phage is inhibited both in hupA hupB and himA himD double mutants [24].
  • This study compares properties of the human PCNA clamp with those of E. coli and T4 phage [25].
  • This tentatively identifies the truncated gene to be the 5' end of the T4 phage ribonucleotide reductase subunit B1 (nrdA) gene and pinpoints its exact location on the T4 phage genomic map [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bacteriophage T4


  1. RNA splicing in the T-even bacteriophage. Chu, F.K., Maley, G.F., Maley, F. FASEB J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Escherichia coli nucleoside diphosphate kinase interactions with T4 phage proteins of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and possible regulatory functions. Shen, R., Olcott, M.C., Kim, J., Rajagopal, I., Mathews, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Multitasking in replication is common among geminiviruses. Preiss, W., Jeske, H. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning of linear DNAs in vivo by overexpressed T4 DNA ligase: construction of a T4 phage hoc gene display vector. Ren, Z.J., Baumann, R.G., Black, L.W. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Elongational flow studies on conformational change in DNA induced by DNA-binding protein HU. Endoh, T., Iyaguchi, D., Sasaki, N., Tanaka, I., Nakata, M. Biopolymers (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Processing of the intron-containing thymidylate synthase (td) gene of phage T4 is at the RNA level. Belfort, M., Pedersen-Lane, J., West, D., Ehrenman, K., Maley, G., Chu, F., Maley, F. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Assaying RNA chaperone activity in vivo using a novel RNA folding trap. Clodi, E., Semrad, K., Schroeder, R. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Methylation interference experiments identify bases that are essential for distinct catalytic functions of a group I ribozyme. von Ahsen, U., Noller, H.F. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. T4 phage gene uvsX product catalyzes homologous DNA pairing. Yonesaki, T., Minagawa, T. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. DNA nick processing by exonuclease and polymerase activities of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase accounts for acridine-induced mutation specificities in T4. Kaiser, V.L., Ripley, L.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. A genetic screen for mutations that increase the thermal stability of phage T4 lysozyme. Alber, T., Wozniak, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhanced amsacrine-induced mutagenesis in plateau-phase Chinese hamster ovary cells, with targeting of +1 frameshifts to free 3' ends of topoisomerase II cleavable complexes. Patteson, K., Wang, P., Povirk, L.F. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the bacteriophage T4 cd gene. Maley, G.F., Duceman, B.W., Wang, A.M., Martinez, J., Maley, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Structural evidence of a passive base-flipping mechanism for beta-glucosyltransferase. Larivière, L., Moréra, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. T4 phage gene 32 protein as a candidate organizing factor for the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate synthetase complex. Wheeler, L.J., Ray, N.B., Ungermann, C., Hendricks, S.P., Bernard, M.A., Hanson, E.S., Mathews, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Rabbit liver tRNA1Val:I. Primary structure and unusual codon recognition. Jank, P., Shindo-Okada, N., Nishimura, S., Gross, H.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Properties of bacteriophage T4 thymidylate synthase following mutagenic changes in the active site and folate binding region. LaPat-Polasko, L., Maley, G.F., Maley, F. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a site necessary for allosteric regulation in T4-phage deoxycytidylate deaminase. Moore, J.T., Cieśla, J.M., Changchien, L.M., Maley, G.F., Maley, F. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Exclusion of T4 phage by the hok/sok killer locus from plasmid R1. Pecota, D.C., Wood, T.K. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Pathways of DNA repair in T4 phage. I. Methyl methanesulfonate sensitive mutant. Ebisuzaki, K., Dewey, C.L., Behme, M.T. Virology (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Polyribosome binding of rabbit globin messenger RNA and messenger ribonucleoprotein labelled with bacteriophage-T4 RNA ligase and 5'-[32P] phosphocytidine 3'-phosphate. Thomas, N.S., Butcher, P.D., Arnstein, H.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Protection provided by exogenous DNA ligase in G0 human lymphocytes treated with restriction enzyme MspI or bleomycin as shown by the comet assay. Flores, M.J., Ortiz, T., Piñero, J., Cortés, F. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Distant structural homology leads to the functional characterization of an archaeal PIN domain as an exonuclease. Arcus, V.L., Bäckbro, K., Roos, A., Daniel, E.L., Baker, E.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Mutations in HU and IHF affect bacteriophage T4 growth: HimD subunits of IHF appear to function as homodimers. Zablewska, B., Kur, J. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Clamp loading, unloading and intrinsic stability of the PCNA, beta and gp45 sliding clamps of human, E. coli and T4 replicases. Yao, N., Turner, J., Kelman, Z., Stukenberg, P.T., Dean, F., Shechter, D., Pan, Z.Q., Hurwitz, J., O'Donnell, M. Genes Cells (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Localization of the T4 phage ribonucleotide reductase B1 subunit gene and the nucleotide sequence of its upstream and 5' coding regions. Chu, F.K., Maley, G.F., Wang, A.M., Maley, F. Gene (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. An anomaly in the active site region of thymidylate synthase. Maley, G.F., Maley, F. Adv. Enzyme Regul. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Vaccination against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus using recombinant T4 bacteriophage displaying viral protein VP2. Cao, Y.C., Shi, Q.C., Ma, J.Y., Xie, Q.M., Bi, Y.Z. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) (2005) [Pubmed]
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