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Gene Review

rIIA  -  membrane integrity protector

Enterobacteria phage T4

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Disease relevance of rIIA

  • The rIIA gene of bacteriophage T4. I. Its DNA sequence and discovery of a new open reading frame between genes 60 and rIIA [1].
  • The evidence suggests that the rIIA and B genes are not directly involved in lysis inhibition; rather, when they are absent, an alternate pathway for lysis develops which depends on the presence of genes from any of several possible prophages and is not sensitive to lysis inhibition [2].
  • When the rII genes are first introduced into cells which had been previously infected by T4 phage deleted for these genes, the kinetics of synthesis of rIIA and rIIB RNA are rapid and identical [3].

High impact information on rIIA

  • Other phage-coded prereplicative proteins related to DNA replication and other phage functions such as the proteins coded by genes 32, 46, rIIA, and rIIB as well as many unidentified proteins were also consistently associated with the isolated fractions [4].
  • DNA sequencing carried out during this analysis extends the known sequence of the rIIA cistron by 333 residues [5].
  • The two rII+ gene expressions might require different molar ratios of the rIIA and rIIB proteins [6].
  • Frequency/distance relationships were studied in a series of two- and three-factor crosses with other rIIB and rIIA mutants (all segC(+)) separated from ets1 by 12-2100 bp [7].
  • We have determined the DNA sequence of the rIIA gene and have discovered a small open reading frame, rIIA.1, between genes 60 and rIIA [1].

Biological context of rIIA

  • Frequency of rII(+) recombinants was measured in two-factor crosses of the type i x ets1, where ets1 designates an insertion in the rIIB gene carrying the cleavage site for SegC and i's are rIIB or rIIA point mutations located at various distances (12-2040 bp) from the ets1 site [8].
  • Also, gp rIIA, a rapid lysis protein, whose gene structure had been intensively studied during the development of molecular biology in the 1950s and yet whose molecular function remains unknown, has an N-terminal domain that is significantly similar to the N-terminal region of the heat shock protein Hsp90 [9].
  • A genetic ('transformation') assay was used to monitor transcription of genes 30 (polynucleotide ligase), 42 (deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase), 43 (DNA polymerase), rIIA, rIIB, and e (endolysin) [10].
  • Fingerprint analysis of the protein shows that it is specified by the rIIA gene of the plasmid [11].
  • Preliminary characterization suggests that a fragment covering the beginning of the rIIA gene possibly contains a promotor which is active in uninfected cells [12].

Regulatory relationships of rIIA

  • We present results which suggest that none of these promoters is likely to be the site at which the motB and motC gene products exercise their major influence on rIIA RNA synthesis [3].

Other interactions of rIIA

  • Among the major proteins obtained are the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the host and the products of T4 genes rIIA, rIIB, and 32 (DNA-"unwinding" protein) [13].
  • We show that this rapid synthesis depends on a functional motA gene for rIIB, but not for rIIA, RNA synthesis [3].
  • Furthermore, we find that the comC alpha 55.6 phage mutant affects the transcription rate of the gene rIIA in a wild-type host [14].


  1. The rIIA gene of bacteriophage T4. I. Its DNA sequence and discovery of a new open reading frame between genes 60 and rIIA. Daegelen, P., Brody, E. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. The roles of the bacteriophage T4 r genes in lysis inhibition and fine-structure genetics: a new perspective. Paddison, P., Abedon, S.T., Dressman, H.K., Gailbreath, K., Tracy, J., Mosser, E., Neitzel, J., Guttman, B., Kutter, E. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The rIIA gene of bacteriophage T4. II. Regulation of its messenger RNA synthesis. Daegelen, P., Brody, E. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Characteristics of a bacteriophage T4-induced complex synthesizing deoxyribonucleotides. Chiu, C.S., Cook, K.S., Greenberg, G.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation of mutation rates in bacteriophage T4 by a base-pair change a dozen nucleotides removed. Sugino, A., Drake, J.W. J. Mol. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Analysis of expression of the rII gene function of bacteriophage T4. Heere, L.J., Karam, J.D. J. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Focused genetic recombination of bacteriophage t4 initiated by double-strand breaks. Shcherbakov, V., Granovsky, I., Plugina, L., Shcherbakova, T., Sizova, S., Pyatkov, K., Shlyapnikov, M., Shubina, O. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Double-strand break repair in bacteriophage t4: recombination effects of 3'-5' exonuclease mutations. Shcherbakov, V.P., Kudryashova, E.A., Shcherbakova, T.S., Sizova, S.T., Plugina, L.A. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Structural/functional assignment of unknown bacteriophage T4 proteins by iterative database searches. Kawabata, T., Arisaka, F., Nishikawa, K. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcriptional control of T4 coliphage-specific genes 30, 42, 43, rIIA, rIIB, and e. Witmer, H., Baros, A., Forbes, J., Padnos, D., Maricondia, W., Weiner, M. J. Gen. Virol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo expression of the rII region of bacteriophage T4 present in chimeric plasmids. Selzer, G., Belin, D., Bolle, A., Van Houwe, G., Mattson, T., Epstein, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Construction and properties of recombinant plasmids containing the rII genes of bacteriophage T4. Selzer, G., Bolle, A., Krisch, B., Epstein, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Intracellular DNA-protein complexes from bacteriophage T4-infected cells isolated by a rapid two-step procedure. Characterization and identification of the protein components. Manoil, C., Sinha, N., Alberts, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterisation of the bacteriophage T4 comC alpha 55.6 and comCJ mutants. A possible role in an antitermination process. Chiurazzi, M., Pulitzer, J.F. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
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