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Gene Review

VP3  -  capsid protein VP3

Murine pneumotropic virus

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Disease relevance of VP3

  • Three putative capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by alternative open reading frames [1].
  • VP1, expressed either alone or with VP3, was phosphorylated on serine residues, which are not modified during polyomavirus infection of mouse cells [2].
  • The 19S mRNAs encode primarily the virion structural proteins VP2 and VP3 [3].
  • Purified empty capsid-like particles, formed in nuclei of insect cells coinfected with all three baculoviruses, contained VP2 and VP3 proteins in amounts comparable to those found in empty capsids purified from mouse cells infected with wild-type polyomavirus [4].
  • We also use it to examine, for the first time, IMP binding to the cancer cell-specific proapoptotic factor viral protein 3 (VP3) from the chicken anemia virus (CAV) [5].

High impact information on VP3

  • The sequence information needed for assigning genotypes can be captured by VP1, VP2, VP3, or large T-gene sequencing [6].
  • VP2 and VP3, but not VP1, caused the permeabilization of bacterial membranes [7].
  • These findings demonstrate that VP3 possesses an inherent lytic property that is independent of eukaryotic signaling or cell death pathways [7].
  • We tested whether an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) might be located upstream of the VP3 AUG that would facilitate its utilization, especially late in infection when cap-dependent translation is reduced (19) [3].
  • The abundant nuclear enzyme PARP participates in the life cycle of simian virus 40 and is stimulated by minor capsid protein VP3 [8].

Biological context of VP3

  • It appeared to result from the combined action of a basal promoter element within the A enhancer domain and of a more downstream element, located in the VP3 intron and abutting the late splice donor [9].

Anatomical context of VP3

  • Model pseudocapsids carrying EGFP fused with the C-terminal part of the VP3 minor protein (EGFP-VLPs) have been prepared and analysed for their ability to be internalised and processed by mouse cells and to activate mouse and human dendritic cells (DC) in vitro [10].

Associations of VP3 with chemical compounds

  • Infection of cells by mutants blocked in expression of either VP2 or VP3 by alterations of their initiator methionine codons led to the rapid selection of wild-type revertants [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VP3

  • Immunoprecipitation of infected mouse cells with either anti-VP1 or anti-VP2/3 antibodies precipitated complexes containing all three species, consistent with the notion that VP1 is necessary for efficient transport of VP2 and VP3 into the nucleus [4].
  • Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced [12].
  • A sequence analysis of the gene encoding viral protein (VP)1 and of the combined region for VP2 and VP3 proteins revealed a previously undescribed synonymous mutation in this isolate [13].


  1. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of the murine polyomavirus, Kilham strain. Mayer, M., Dörries, K. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Polyomavirus VP1 phosphorylation: coexpression with the VP2 capsid protein modulates VP1 phosphorylation in Sf9 insect cells. Li, M., Delos, S.E., Montross, L., Garcea, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. 19S late mRNAs of simian virus 40 have an internal ribosome entry site upstream of the virion structural protein 3 coding sequence. Yu, Y., Alwine, J.C. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Cooperation of structural proteins during late events in the life cycle of polyomavirus. Forstová, J., Krauzewicz, N., Wallace, S., Street, A.J., Dilworth, S.M., Beard, S., Griffin, B.E. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Intramolecular masking of nuclear localization signals: analysis of importin binding using a novel AlphaScreen-based method. Wagstaff, K.M., Jans, D.A. Anal. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Phylogenetic analysis of polyomavirus BK sequences. Sharma, P.M., Gupta, G., Vats, A., Shapiro, R., Randhawa, P. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Simian virus 40 late proteins possess lytic properties that render them capable of permeabilizing cellular membranes. Daniels, R., Rusan, N.M., Wilbuer, A.K., Norkin, L.C., Wadsworth, P., Hebert, D.N. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The abundant nuclear enzyme PARP participates in the life cycle of simian virus 40 and is stimulated by minor capsid protein VP3. Gordon-Shaag, A., Yosef, Y., Abd El-Latif, M., Oppenheim, A. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Control elements situated downstream of the major transcriptional start site are sufficient for highly efficient polyomavirus late transcription. Bourachot, B., Yaniv, M., Herbomel, P. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Polyomavirus EGFP-pseudocapsids: analysis of model particles for introduction of proteins and peptides into mammalian cells. Boura, E., Liebl, D., Spísek, R., Fric, J., Marek, M., Stokrová, J., Holán, V., Forstová, J. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Defect in entry and altered pathogenicity of a polyoma virus mutant blocked in VP2 myristylation. Sahli, R., Freund, R., Dubensky, T., Garcea, R., Bronson, R., Benjamin, T. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins. Cai, X., Chang, D., Rottinghaus, S., Consigli, R.A. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. An outbreak of the polyomavirus infection in budgerigars and cockatiels in Slovakia, including a genome analysis of an avian polyomavirus isolate. Literák, I., Smíd, B., Dubská, L., Bryndza, L., Valícek, L. Avian Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
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