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Gene Review

VP2  -  capsid protein VP2

Murine pneumotropic virus

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Disease relevance of VP2

  • Location of the sequences coding for capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 on polyoma virus DNA [1].
  • Comparison of the chain lengths of the capsid proteins with the size of the viral mRNAs coding for them suggests that VP1 and VP2 are entirely virus-coded [1].
  • Coproduction of the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 was achieved by infecting Sf9 cells with the three recombinant baculovirus species at equal multiplicities [2].
  • We consider the implications of this unusual modification on encapsidation and suggest that VP2 may be a scaffolding protein for virion assembly [3].
  • Here we show that VP2 from both polyoma virus and simian virus 40 (SV40) is covalently linked to myristic acid; this is the first report of a myristylated protein in the nucleus and of a fatty acid being important in the structure of a nonenveloped virus [3].

High impact information on VP2

  • Overlapping of the VP2-VP3 gene and the VP1 gene in the SV40 genome [4].
  • The 16S RNA codes only for polyoma capsid protein VP1, while the 19S RNA codes in addition for capsid protein VP2 [1].
  • Since the 19S and 16S species have been previously mapped on the viral genome, these results allow us to deduce the location of the sequences coding for VP1 and VP2 [1].
  • When VP1 was coexpressed with VP2, the nonphysiologic serine phosphorylation of VP1 was decreased, and a tryptic peptide containing Thr-63, a site modified during virus infection of mouse cells, was phosphorylated [5].
  • A stretch of 49 amino acids of VP2 served as an anchor molecule, either expressed as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or covalently linked to methotrexate (MTX) [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of VP2


Biological context of VP2


Anatomical context of VP2


Associations of VP2 with chemical compounds

  • Other experiments showed that the VP2 and VP3 can be labeled with formyl methionine from initiator tRNA [18].
  • The N-terminal glycine of the VP2 coat protein has been shown to be cotranslationally acylated with myristic acid [9].
  • VP1, VP2, and vp3 were all labeled with [35S] formylmethionine when they were synthesized in the presence of [35S] formylmethionyl-tRNAfmet [19].
  • Polyoma mRNA species have been isolated by preparative hybridization to purified viral DNA immobilized on cellulose nitrate filters and shown to code for both VP1 and VP2 [11].
  • In contrast, six of seven of the new APVs isolated in CEFs had a glycine at VP2 221 [16].

Physical interactions of VP2

  • Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids [20].

Other interactions of VP2

  • The NCCRs of the several Indian endemic strains were analysed by sequencing PCR products, amplified directly from urine samples, with oligonucleotide primers designed from the constant region of T-Antigen and VP2 coding sequences [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VP2


  1. Location of the sequences coding for capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 on polyoma virus DNA. Smith, A.E., Kamen, R., Mangel, W.F., Shure, H., Wheeler, T. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Self-assembly and protein-protein interactions between the SV40 capsid proteins produced in insect cells. Sandalon, Z., Oppenheim, A. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Myristic acid is coupled to a structural protein of polyoma virus and SV40. Streuli, C.H., Griffin, B.E. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Overlapping of the VP2-VP3 gene and the VP1 gene in the SV40 genome. Contreras, R., Rogiers, R., Van de Voorde, A., Fiers, W. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Polyomavirus VP1 phosphorylation: coexpression with the VP2 capsid protein modulates VP1 phosphorylation in Sf9 insect cells. Li, M., Delos, S.E., Montross, L., Garcea, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficient intracellular delivery of a protein and a low molecular weight substance via recombinant polyomavirus-like particles. Abbing, A., Blaschke, U.K., Grein, S., Kretschmar, M., Stark, C.M., Thies, M.J., Walter, J., Weigand, M., Woith, D.C., Hess, J., Reiser, C.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Cooperation of structural proteins during late events in the life cycle of polyomavirus. Forstová, J., Krauzewicz, N., Wallace, S., Street, A.J., Dilworth, S.M., Beard, S., Griffin, B.E. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Polyoma virus complementary RNA directs the in vitro synthesis of capsid proteins VP1 and VP2. Mangel, W.F., Hewick, R.M., Bayley, S.T., Wheeler, T., Harvey, R., Waterfield, M.D., Smith, A.E. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Myristylated polyomavirus VP2: role in the life cycle of the virus. Krauzewicz, N., Streuli, C.H., Stuart-Smith, N., Jones, M.D., Wallace, S., Griffin, B.E. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Proteins in intracellular simian virus 40 nucleoportein complexes: comparison with simian virus 40 core proteins. Meinke, W., Hall, M.R., Goldstein, D.A. J. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Cell-free synthesis of polyoma virus capsid proteins VP1 and VP2. Wheeler, T., Bayley, S.T., Harvey, R., Crawford, L.V., Smith, A.E. J. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Phylogenetic analysis of polyomavirus BK sequences. Sharma, P.M., Gupta, G., Vats, A., Shapiro, R., Randhawa, P. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of the murine polyomavirus, Kilham strain. Mayer, M., Dörries, K. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Polyoma virus DNA: complete nucleotide sequence of the gene which codes for polyoma virus capsid protein VP1 and overlaps the VP2/VP3 genes. Soeda, E., Arrand, J.R., Griffin, B.E. J. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Simian virus 40 late proteins possess lytic properties that render them capable of permeabilizing cellular membranes. Daniels, R., Rusan, N.M., Wilbuer, A.K., Norkin, L.C., Wadsworth, P., Hebert, D.N. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Genetic diversity in twenty variants of the avian polyomavirus. Phalen, D.N., Wilson, V.G., Gaskin, J.M., Derr, J.N., Graham, D.L. Avian Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell-free translation of simian virus 40 16S and 19S L-strand-specific mRNA classes to simian virus 40 major VP-1 and minor VP-2 and VP-3 capsid proteins. Prives, C.L., Shure, H. J. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Polyoma virus has three late mRNA's: one for each virion protein. Siddell, S.G., Smith, A.E. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of the mRNA's for the polyoma virus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Hunter, T., Gibson, W. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins. Cai, X., Chang, D., Rottinghaus, S., Consigli, R.A. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. High reactivation of BK virus variants in Asian Indians with renal disorders and during pregnancy. Bhattacharjee, S., Chakraborty, T. Virus Genes (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of the polyomavirus VP2 and VP3 proteins in insect cells: coexpression with the major capsid protein VP1 alters VP2/VP3 subcellular localization. Delos, S.E., Montross, L., Moreland, R.B., Garcea, R.L. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Avian polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 interacts with the minor capsid proteins and is transported into the cell nucleus but does not assemble into capsid-like particles when expressed in the baculovirus system. An, K., Smiley, S.A., Gillock, E.T., Reeves, W.M., Consigli, R.A. Virus Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Topography of the three late mRNA's of polyoma virus which encode the virion proteins. Kamen, R., Favaloro, J., Parker, J. J. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
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