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Gene Review

sqt-1  -  Protein SQT-1

Caenorhabditis elegans

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High impact information on sqt-1

  • The Tc1 insertion mutant has no detectable sqt-1 transcripts, yet it is morphologically normal, indicating that the null phenotype of sqt-1 is wild type [1].
  • The sqt-1 gene of C. elegans encodes a collagen critical for organismal morphogenesis [1].
  • Equivalent alterations in sqt-1 and rol-6 generally produced the same phenotypes, indicating that conserved amino acids in these two collagens have similar functions [2].
  • The amino acid sequence of the collagen encoded by rol-6 is more similar to that of the sqt-1 collagen than to any of the other ten C. elegans cuticle collagen sequences compared [3].
  • The SQT-1 pattern differs from the bulk of cuticle collagens which are found in trimer and larger forms. sqt-1 mutations that cause left-handed helical twisting of animals remove a conserved carboxyl-domain cysteine and inhibit formation of these non-reducible bonds [4].

Associations of sqt-1 with chemical compounds

  • The locations of cysteine residues flanking the Gly-X-Y repeat regions of rol-6 and sqt-1 are identical, but differ from those in the other collagens [3].
  • In contrast to other collagens, glycine replacement mutations in the Gly-X-Y repeats of sqt-1 cause very mild phenotypes [5].

Regulatory relationships of sqt-1

  • Furthermore, phenotypes caused by defects in dbl-1 or lon-3 expression are in both cases suppressed by a null mutation in sqt-1, a second cuticle collagen gene [6].

Other interactions of sqt-1

  • The Caenorhabditis elegans rol-6 gene, which interacts with the sqt-1 collagen gene to determine organismal morphology, encodes a collagen [3].
  • These data include the morphologic phenotypes exhibited by mutants, unusual genetic interactions with the sqt-1 collagen gene, and suppression of mutations in the glp-1 and mup-1 genes [7].
  • A similar ray morphology phenotype was observed in males harboring mutations in three previously defined genes, dpy-11, dpy-18 and sqt-1, that also affect body shape [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of sqt-1

  • Sequence analysis of the sqt-1 gene shows that it encodes a 32 kd collagen polypeptide that is similar in size and structure to other members of the C. elegans collagen family [1].


  1. The sqt-1 gene of C. elegans encodes a collagen critical for organismal morphogenesis. Kramer, J.M., Johnson, J.J., Edgar, R.S., Basch, C., Roberts, S. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro mutagenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans cuticle collagens identifies a potential subtilisin-like protease cleavage site and demonstrates that carboxyl domain disulfide bonding is required for normal function but not assembly. Yang, J., Kramer, J.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The Caenorhabditis elegans rol-6 gene, which interacts with the sqt-1 collagen gene to determine organismal morphology, encodes a collagen. Kramer, J.M., French, R.P., Park, E.C., Johnson, J.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Proteolytic processing of Caenorhabditis elegans SQT-1 cuticle collagen is inhibited in right roller mutants whereas cross-linking is inhibited in left roller mutants. Yang, J., Kramer, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of mutations in the sqt-1 and rol-6 collagen genes of Caenorhabditis elegans. Kramer, J.M., Johnson, J.J. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased or decreased levels of Caenorhabditis elegans lon-3, a gene encoding a collagen, cause reciprocal changes in body length. Nyström, J., Shen, Z.Z., Aili, M., Flemming, A.J., Leroi, A., Tuck, S. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular and genetic analyses of the Caenorhabditis elegans dpy-2 and dpy-10 collagen genes: a variety of molecular alterations affect organismal morphology. Levy, A.D., Yang, J., Kramer, J.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Properties of a class of genes required for ray morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Baird, S.E., Emmons, S.W. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
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