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Gene Review

crt-1  -  Protein CRT-1

Caenorhabditis elegans

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Disease relevance of crt-1

  • Comparison of the C. elegans sequence with the calreticulin-related antigen RAL-1 of Oncocerca volvulus shows 73% identity, excluding the calreticulin C-terminal region [1].
  • The striking similarity of the parasite Ag and the human autoantigen has led to the hypothesis that RAL1 may induce a cross-reactive immune response to calreticulin, which in turn may be involved in the pathogenesis of onchocerciasis [2].

High impact information on crt-1

  • In C. elegans CRT-1 is expressed in the intestine, pharynx, body-wall muscles, head neurons, coelomocytes, and in sperm. crt-1 males exhibit reduced mating efficiency and defects late in sperm development in addition to defects in oocyte development and/or somatic gonad function in hermaphrodites [3].
  • Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-binding protein known to have many cellular functions, including regulation of Ca(2+) homoeostasis and chaperone activity, is essential for heart and brain development during embryogenesis in mice [3].
  • Epitopes of the Onchocerca volvulus RAL1 antigen, a member of the calreticulin family of proteins, recognized by sera from patients with onchocerciasis [2].
  • Here, we describe the application of RNA interference (RNAi) to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita for the knock-down of two genes expressed in the subventral esophageal glands of the nematode and potentially involved in parasitism, the calreticulin (Mi-crt) and the polygalacturonase (Mi-pg-1) genes [4].
  • Moreover, a double knockout mutant of calnexin and calreticulin exhibits additive severe defects [5].

Biological context of crt-1

  • The C. elegans gene described here and designated crt-1 was mapped to a region towards the left-hand end of Chromosome V on the physical map of the genome [1].
  • The gene encoding a C. elegans homologue of the mammalian reticuloplasmin, calreticulin, was cloned and sequenced and the amino-acid sequence of its product deduced [1].

Anatomical context of crt-1

  • Suppression was also achieved by mutation in calreticulin, which is necessary for maintainance of intracellular Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmic reticulum [6].

Associations of crt-1 with chemical compounds

  • The sequence shows a 61% identity with mouse calreticulin, increasing to 82% in the proline-rich region of the molecule [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of crt-1


  1. A C. elegans gene encodes a protein homologous to mammalian calreticulin. Smith, M.J. DNA Seq. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Epitopes of the Onchocerca volvulus RAL1 antigen, a member of the calreticulin family of proteins, recognized by sera from patients with onchocerciasis. Rokeach, L.A., Zimmerman, P.A., Unnasch, T.R. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Calreticulin, a calcium-binding molecular chaperone, is required for stress response and fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans. Park, B.J., Lee, D.G., Yu, J.R., Jung, S.K., Choi, K., Lee, J., Lee, J., Kim, Y.S., Lee, J.I., Kwon, J.Y., Lee, J., Singson, A., Song, W.K., Eom, S.H., Park, C.S., Kim, D.H., Bandyopadhyay, J., Ahnn, J. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Application of RNA interference to root-knot nematode genes encoding esophageal gland proteins. Rosso, M.N., Dubrana, M.P., Cimbolini, N., Jaubert, S., Abad, P. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Caenorhabditis elegans calnexin is N-glycosylated and required for stress response. Lee, W., Lee, T.H., Park, B.J., Chang, J.W., Yu, J.R., Koo, H.S., Park, H., Yoo, Y.J., Ahnn, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuronal toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans from an editing site mutant in glutamate receptor channels. Aronoff, R., Mellem, J.E., Maricq, A.V., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P.H. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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