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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pharynx


Psychiatry related information on Pharynx


High impact information on Pharynx

  • Here, we show that the C. elegans Rho/Rac-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, VAV-1, which is homologous to the mammalian Vav proto-oncogene, has a crucial role in all three behaviors. vav-1 mutants die as larvae because VAV-1 function is required in the pharynx for synchronous contraction of the musculature [7].
  • In addition to its previously identified role involving RhoGEF-1 in migrating cells and growth cones, our data indicate that UNC-73 signals through RhoGEF-2 to regulate pharynx and vulva musculature and to modulate synaptic neurotransmission [8].
  • The UNC-73/Trio RhoGEF-2 domain is required in separate isoforms for the regulation of pharynx pumping and normal neurotransmission in C. elegans [8].
  • Here we show that the pha-4 locus establishes organ identity for the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx [9].
  • We therefore examined the expression of FGF-2 and similar FGFs in the ventral pharynx [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pharynx


Biological context of Pharynx


Anatomical context of Pharynx


Associations of Pharynx with chemical compounds

  • We now report that CD44, a hyaluronic acid-binding protein that mediates human cell-cell- and cell-extracellular matrix-binding interactions, functions as a receptor for GAS colonization of the pharynx in vivo [23].
  • The findings suggest that in man glands in or near the pharynx secrete a lipase that acts in the stomach to hydrolyze long-chain triglyceride to partial glycerides and FFA [24].
  • These results indicate that: (i) an ivermectin-sensitive chloride channel mediates fast inhibitory glutamatergic neuromuscular transmission; and (ii) a nematocidal property of ivermectin derives from its activity as an agonist of glutamate-gated chloride channels in essential excitable cells such as those of the pharynx [25].
  • By reducing the size of the photolytic beam, glutamate was released at several different locations of the pharynx [26].
  • Retinoic acid signaling acts via Hox1 to establish the posterior limit of the pharynx in the chordate amphioxus [22].

Gene context of Pharynx

  • These results suggest a role for mek-1 in stress responses, with a focus in the pharynx and/or intestine [27].
  • Interestingly, in mutant embryos homozygous for Nkx2.6, Nkx2.5 expression extended to the lateral side of the pharynx, suggesting a compensatory function of Nkx2.5 in the mutant pharyngeal pouches [28].
  • Expression of Nkx2.6 overlaps that of Nkx2.5 in the pharynx and heart and that of Nkx2.3 in the pharynx [28].
  • Knocking down chs-2 by RNAi caused a defect in the pharynx and led to L1 larval arrest, indicating that chitin is involved in the development and function of the pharynx [29].
  • We suggest that the variable mandibular hypoplasia in double mutants involves increased BMP activity downregulating Fgf8 expression in the pharynx, decreasing cell survival during mandibular outgrowth [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pharynx

  • We use sequence alignments and subsequent deletions to identify a region at the 3'-end of both Ce-ges-1 and Ce-ges-1 that acts as the ges-1 cryptic pharynx enhancer whose activity is revealed by removal of the 5' WGATAR sites [31].
  • PURPOSE: A multicenter randomized and balanced double-blind trial with the objective of assessing the efficacy and tolerance of nimorazole given as a hypoxic radiosensitizer in conjunction with primary radiotherapy of invasive carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx and pharynx [13].
  • Methylene blue was placed in the pharynx of 64 patients undergoing anaesthesia with the laryngeal mask [32].
  • A possible mechanism for transmission was contamination from the first patient of the atomizer if it was used to apply lidocaine to the pharynx and nasal passages of other patients [33].
  • This study determines the flammability of materials in the oral cavity and pharynx during anesthesia in an environment of potentially high oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations where an ignition source (cautery, laser) may be in close proximity [34].


  1. High-activity microsomal epoxide hydrolase genotypes and the risk of oral, pharynx, and larynx cancers. Jourenkova-Mironova, N., Mitrunen, K., Bouchardy, C., Dayer, P., Benhamou, S., Hirvonen, A. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Invasive soft tissue infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review of the literature. Hill, M.D., Karsh, J. Arthritis Rheum. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with Kawasaki disease express high levels of protein A. Wann, E.R., Fehringer, A.P., Ezepchuk, Y.V., Schlievert, P.M., Bina, P., Reiser, R.F., Höök, M.M., Leung, D.Y. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The glutathione S-transferase GSTP1 polymorphism: effects on susceptibility to oral/pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas. Matthias, C., Bockmühl, U., Jahnke, V., Harries, L.W., Wolf, C.R., Jones, P.W., Alldersea, J., Worrall, S.F., Hand, P., Fryer, A.A., Strange, R.C. Pharmacogenetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Variation in survival of patients with head and neck cancer in Europe by the site of origin of the tumours. EUROCARE Working Group. Berrino, F., Gatta, G. Eur. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Case-control study of associated conditions at the time of death in patients with epilepsy. Satishchandra, P., Chandra, V., Schoenberg, B.S. Neuroepidemiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. The Rho/Rac-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV-1 regulates rhythmic behaviors in C. elegans. Norman, K.R., Fazzio, R.T., Mellem, J.E., Espelt, M.V., Strange, K., Beckerle, M.C., Maricq, A.V. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The UNC-73/Trio RhoGEF-2 domain is required in separate isoforms for the regulation of pharynx pumping and normal neurotransmission in C. elegans. Steven, R., Zhang, L., Culotti, J., Pawson, T. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. pha-4, an HNF-3 homolog, specifies pharyngeal organ identity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Horner, M.A., Quintin, S., Domeier, M.E., Kimble, J., Labouesse, M., Mango, S.E. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. FGF-8 in the ventral pharynx alters development of myocardial calcium transients after neural crest ablation. Farrell, M.J., Burch, J.L., Wallis, K., Rowley, L., Kumiski, D., Stadt, H., Godt, R.E., Creazzo, T.L., Kirby, M.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Low concentrations of mupirocin in the pharynx following intranasal application may contribute to mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Watanabe, H., Masaki, H., Asoh, N., Watanabe, K., Oishi, K., Kobayashi, S., Sato, A., Sugita, R., Nagatake, T. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunohistochemical and electrochemical detection of serotonin in the nervous system of Fasciola hepatica, a parasitic flatworm. Sukhdeo, S.C., Sukhdeo, M.V. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. A randomized double-blind phase III study of nimorazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of primary radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx and pharynx carcinoma. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study (DAHANCA) Protocol 5-85. Overgaard, J., Hansen, H.S., Overgaard, M., Bastholt, L., Berthelsen, A., Specht, L., Lindeløv, B., Jørgensen, K. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis with cefaclor or penicillin. Efficacy and interaction with beta-lactamase-producing organisms in the pharynx. Reed, B.D., Huck, W., Zazove, P. The Journal of family practice. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Misonidazole neuropathy. A prospective study. Melgaard, B., Køhler, O., Sand Hansen, H., Overgaard, J., Munck-Hansen, J., Paulson, O.B. J. Neurooncol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling. Starich, T.A., Lee, R.Y., Panzarella, C., Avery, L., Shaw, J.E. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Genesis of an organ: molecular analysis of the pha-1 gene. Granato, M., Schnabel, H., Schnabel, R. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. pha-4 is Ce-fkh-1, a fork head/HNF-3alpha,beta,gamma homolog that functions in organogenesis of the C. elegans pharynx. Kalb, J.M., Lau, K.K., Goszczynski, B., Fukushige, T., Moons, D., Okkema, P.G., McGhee, J.D. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Functional overexpression of gamma-secretase reveals protease-independent trafficking functions and a critical role of lipids for protease activity. Wrigley, J.D., Schurov, I., Nunn, E.J., Martin, A.C., Clarke, E.E., Ellis, S., Bonnert, T.P., Shearman, M.S., Beher, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutation analysis and embryonic expression of the HLXB9 Currarino syndrome gene. Hagan, D.M., Ross, A.J., Strachan, T., Lynch, S.A., Ruiz-Perez, V., Wang, Y.M., Scambler, P., Custard, E., Reardon, W., Hassan, S., Nixon, P., Papapetrou, C., Winter, R.M., Edwards, Y., Morrison, K., Barrow, M., Cordier-Alex, M.P., Correia, P., Galvin-Parton, P.A., Gaskill, S., Gaskin, K.J., Garcia-Minaur, S., Gereige, R., Hayward, R., Homfray, T. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential recognition of response elements determines target gene specificity for p53 and p63. Osada, M., Park, H.L., Nagakawa, Y., Yamashita, K., Fomenkov, A., Kim, M.S., Wu, G., Nomoto, S., Trink, B., Sidransky, D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Retinoic acid signaling acts via Hox1 to establish the posterior limit of the pharynx in the chordate amphioxus. Schubert, M., Yu, J.K., Holland, N.D., Escriva, H., Laudet, V., Holland, L.Z. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. CD44 as a receptor for colonization of the pharynx by group A Streptococcus. Cywes, C., Stamenkovic, I., Wessels, M.R. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Pharyngeal lipase and digestion of dietary triglyceride in man. Hamosh, M., Klaeveman, H.L., Wolf, R.O., Scow, R.O. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. avr-15 encodes a chloride channel subunit that mediates inhibitory glutamatergic neurotransmission and ivermectin sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dent, J.A., Davis, M.W., Avery, L. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of chemical synapses in the pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans. Li, H., Avery, L., Denk, W., Hess, G.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. A Caenorhabditis elegans MAP kinase kinase, MEK-1, is involved in stress responses. Koga, M., Zwaal, R., Guan, K.L., Avery, L., Ohshima, Y. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Phenotypic characterization of the murine Nkx2.6 homeobox gene by gene targeting. Tanaka, M., Yamasaki, N., Izumo, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. The chitin synthase genes chs-1 and chs-2 are essential for C. elegans development and responsible for chitin deposition in the eggshell and pharynx, respectively. Zhang, Y., Foster, J.M., Nelson, L.S., Ma, D., Carlow, C.K. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. The BMP antagonists Chordin and Noggin have essential but redundant roles in mouse mandibular outgrowth. Stottmann, R.W., Anderson, R.M., Klingensmith, J. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Coordination of ges-1 expression between the Caenorhabditis pharynx and intestine. Marshall, S.D., McGhee, J.D. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Airway protection by the laryngeal mask. A barrier to dye placed in the pharynx. John, R.E., Hill, S., Hughes, T.J. Anaesthesia. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Cluster of tuberculosis cases in North Carolina: possible association with atomizer reuse. Southwick, K.L., Hoffmann, K., Ferree, K., Matthews, J., Salfinger, M. American journal of infection control. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Flammability of esophageal stethoscopes, nasogastric tubes, feeding tubes, and nasopharyngeal airways in oxygen- and nitrous oxide-enriched atmospheres. Simpson, J.I., Wolf, G.L. Anesth. Analg. (1988) [Pubmed]
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