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Gene Review

Hoxa4  -  homeo box A4

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Homeobox protein Hox-A4, Homeobox protein R2, Hox-a4, Hox1r2, hox1.4
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Disease relevance of Hoxa4

  • Hypoxia equivalent to an altitude of around 2 km (16.0% O2) or 5 km (10.8% O2) caused a biphasic change in both CRFR1 and R2 mRNA, there being an initial significant decline on day 1 and then an enhancement by day 2 [1].
  • Solution hybridization-nuclease protection assays conducted 24 h after formalin injection into the right hindpaw of the rat revealed a significant bilateral increase in GABA(B) R1 and R2 receptor expression in the dorsal lumbar spinal cord, and a significant increase in GABA(B) R1 receptor mRNA in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglion [2].

High impact information on Hoxa4

  • The binding observed with the R-2 RNA was mapped to a direct repeat of an 8-base AU sequence [3].
  • However, the latter binding was more effectively competed by R-2 RNA than by itself, indicating that the homologous sites may be weaker binding sites for the same 48-kDa protein [3].
  • These findings indicate an activity-dependent, differential regulation of GABA(B) R1 and R2 receptor gene expression in spinal sensory systems in response to chemogenic nociceptive activation, suggesting that GABA(B) receptor plasticity may play an important role in regulating the mediation, and perception, of chronic pain [2].
  • The R-2/3 mRNA was present as a single species on Northern blot in the liver and in a restricted number of extrahepatic tissues (salivary glands, ileum, and kidney) but was detected in most tissues by polymerase chain reaction [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hoxa4

  • RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that cytosolic extracts of rat renal cortex contain a protein that binds to the R-2 and R-3 RNAs [3].
  • On Western blot, < 4% of adult liver R-1 content and a relatively larger amount of R-2/3 were detected in all four extrahepatic tissues examined [4].


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