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Chemical Compound Review

Gentavet     2-[4,6-diamino-3-[3-amino-6- (1...

Synonyms: Gentamar, Gentocin, Alcomicin, Garamycin, GENTAMYCIN, ...
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Disease relevance of gentamicin


Psychiatry related information on gentamicin


High impact information on gentamicin


Chemical compound and disease context of gentamicin


Biological context of gentamicin

  • This pharmacokinetics analysis provided evidence that patients who experience gentamicin-related nephrotoxic effects while receiving recommended doses of gentamicin could be distinguished from patients with no toxic effects because they experienced abnormal tissue accumulation before detectable changes in renal function occurred [20].
  • Kinetics of gentamicin uptake and release in the rat. Comparison of inner ear tissues and fluids with other organs [21].
  • Heat fractionation with gentamicin increased the LD50/7 (total time at 45 degrees C) to 23.0 and 12.5 minutes at 45 degrees C for 1- and 3-day intervals, respectively [22].
  • This effect was not due to acute reductions in arterial blood pressure or renal blood flow, it could be reproduced by substituting nonviable for viable gram-negative organisms, and it was associated with increased renal gentamicin uptake [23].
  • R factors mediating gentamicin resistance were demonstrated in 34 of 36 strains [24].

Anatomical context of gentamicin


Associations of gentamicin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of gentamicin

  • The gentamicin protection assays using intracellular bacteria showed that CHI3L1 is required for the enhancement of adhesion and internalization of these bacteria in CEC [32].
  • The 5' flanking regions of two other genes, the trimethoprim-resistance gene from R388 and the gentamicin resistance (aadB) gene from pDGO100, are greater than 98% homologous to the 5' flanking sequences of the OXA-1, OXA-2, and aadA genes until they diverge at the target sequence [33].
  • Insertional inactivation of the fliA gene with a gentamicin gene cassette rendered P. aeruginosa nonmotile and unable to express the flagellin gene [34].
  • In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of GDNF against gentamicin ototoxicity [35].
  • We report another Bla+ enterococcus with high-level gentamicin resistance [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gentamicin


  1. A randomized trial comparing ceftazidime alone with combination antibiotic therapy in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. Pizzo, P.A., Hathorn, J.W., Hiemenz, J., Browne, M., Commers, J., Cotton, D., Gress, J., Longo, D., Marshall, D., McKnight, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Single-dose therapy of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum with ceftriaxone. Laga, M., Naamara, W., Brunham, R.C., D'Costa, L.J., Nsanze, H., Piot, P., Kunimoto, D., Ndinya-Achola, J.O., Slaney, L., Ronald, A.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Edwards, K.M., Munro, D.L., Hunt, C.E., Davis, A.T. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Intrathecal amikacin administration. Use in the treatment of gentamicin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis. Hamory, B., Ignatiadis, P., Sande, M.A. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical nephrotoxicity of tobramycin and gentamicin. A prospective study. Kumin, G.D. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Protection from ototoxicity of intraperitoneal gentamicin in guinea pig. Sinswat, P., Wu, W.J., Sha, S.H., Schacht, J. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Surgical treatment of Meniere's disease. Van de Heyning, P.H., Wuyts, F., Boudewyns, A. Curr. Opin. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of water deprivation and rehydration on gentamicin disposition in the rat. Lecompte, J., Dumont, L., Hill, J., du Souich, P., Lelorier, J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. The pharmacokinetics of amikacin and gentamicin in volunteers: a comparison of individual differences. Walker, J.M., Wise, R., Mitchard, M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Synergistic effect of nonspecific immunostimulation and antibiotics in experimental peritonitis. Browder, W., Williams, D., Sherwood, E., McNamee, R., Jones, E., DiLuzio, N. Surgery (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Suppression of a CFTR premature stop mutation in a bronchial epithelial cell line. Bedwell, D.M., Kaenjak, A., Benos, D.J., Bebok, Z., Bubien, J.K., Hong, J., Tousson, A., Clancy, J.P., Sorscher, E.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A transposon, Tn732, encoding gentamicin/tobramycin resistance. Nugent, M.E., Bone, D.H., Datta, N. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Ultrastructural evidence for hair cell regeneration in the mammalian inner ear. Forge, A., Li, L., Corwin, J.T., Nevill, G. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Antibiotic therapy for cat-scratch disease? Bogue, C.W., Wise, J.D., Gray, G.F., Edwards, K.M. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Double-blind comparison of the nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of gentamicin and tobramycin. Smith, C.R., Lipsky, J.J., Laskin, O.L., Hellmann, D.B., Mellits, E.D., Longstreth, J., Lietman, P.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Endothelial characteristics of glomerular capillaries in normal, mercuric chloride-induced, and gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in the rat. Bulger, R.E., Eknoyan, G., Purcell, D.J., Dobyan, D.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence suggesting a role for hydroxyl radical in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Walker, P.D., Shah, S.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. New genetic location of gentamicin-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Rahman, M., Naidoo, J., George, R.C. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Aztreonam compared with gentamicin for treatment of serious urinary tract infections. Sattler, F.R., Moyer, J.E., Schramm, M., Lombard, J.S., Appelbaum, P.C. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Gentamicin tissue accumulation and nephrotoxic reactions. Schentag, J.J., Cumbo, T.J., Jusko, W.J., Plaut, M.E. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Kinetics of gentamicin uptake and release in the rat. Comparison of inner ear tissues and fluids with other organs. Tran Ba Huy, P., Bernard, P., Schacht, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Thermotolerance in the murine jejunum. Henle, K.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Gentamicin and gram-negative bacteremia. A synergism for the development of experimental nephrotoxic acute renal failure. Zager, R.A., Prior, R.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. R factors in gentamicin-resistant organisms causing hospital infection. Richmond, A.S., Simberkoff, M.S., Rahal, J.J., Schaefler, S. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Calcium is a competitive inhibitor of gentamicin-renal membrane binding interactions and dietary calcium supplementation protects against gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Humes, H.D., Sastrasinh, M., Weinberg, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Aminoglycoside antibiotics restore dystrophin function to skeletal muscles of mdx mice. Barton-Davis, E.R., Cordier, L., Shoturma, D.I., Leland, S.E., Sweeney, H.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of antibiotics on mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Bruckner, H.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Endotoxin and the liver. III. Modification of acute carbon tetrachloride injury by polymyxin b--an antiendotoxin. Nolan, J.P., Leibowitz, A.I. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Single-dose kanamycin therapy of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. Fransen, L., Nsanze, H., D'Costa, L., Brunham, R.C., Ronald, A.R., Piot, P. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. In-vitro activity of cefotaxime against gentamicin and mezlocillin resistant strains. Braveny, I., Dickert, H. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Chloramphenicol versus benzylpenicillin and gentamicin for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children in Papua New Guinea: a randomised trial. Duke, T., Poka, H., Dale, F., Michael, A., Mgone, J., Wal, T. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Chitinase 3-like-1 exacerbates intestinal inflammation by enhancing bacterial adhesion and invasion in colonic epithelial cells. Mizoguchi, E. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta-lactamase gene. Ouellette, M., Bissonnette, L., Roy, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. The fliA (rpoF) gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an alternative sigma factor required for flagellin synthesis. Starnbach, M.N., Lory, S. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of transgenic GDNF expression on gentamicin-induced cochlear and vestibular toxicity. Suzuki, M., Yagi, M., Brown, J.N., Miller, A.L., Miller, J.M., Raphael, Y. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Susceptibility and bactericidal activity studies of four beta-lactamase-producing enterococci. Patterson, J.E., Zervos, M.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emergence in an intensive care nursery. Faden, H., Neter, E., McLaughlin, S., Giacoia, G. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  38. Short-course gentamicin in gram-negative CAPD peritonitis. Dryden, M., Eykyn, S.J. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
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