The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

R Factors

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of R Factors


High impact information on R Factors


Chemical compound and disease context of R Factors


Biological context of R Factors


Anatomical context of R Factors


Associations of R Factors with chemical compounds

  • The present models have been refined to 2.8 A and 2.2 A, with crystallographic R factors of 24.1% and 23.3% for the dT and Ganciclovir complexes respectively, without the inclusion of any solvent molecules [25].
  • Cancer patients are significantly depleted of ascorbic acid, and in our opinion this demonstrable biochemical characteristic indicates a substantially increased requirement and utilization of this substance to potentiate these various host resistance factors [26].
  • In studies with the COV413B cells and their cis-DDP-resistant counterpart COV413B-PtR, immunologically detected adduct levels again correlated closely with resistance factors (correlation coefficient = 0.97) [27].
  • Two distinct types of trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolate reductase specified by R-plasmids of different compatibility groups [28].
  • The crystal structures of xanthan lyase and its complex with the product (pyruvylated mannose) were refined at 2.3 and 2.4 A resolution with final R-factors of 17.5 and 16.9%, respectively [29].

Gene context of R Factors

  • PancTu I cells express the complement resistance factors CD46, CD55, and CD59, as we demonstrated by immunostaining, an observation that may explain the lack of cytotoxicity of the CA19-9-CVF conjugate [30].
  • In contrast, MRP1-overexpressing cells, both drug selected and MRP1 transfected, are clearly resistant to IL-4 toxin with resistance factors of 4.3 to 8 [31].
  • Resistance factors for TS inhibitors were: 2.4 and 0.4 for 5-fluorouracil (5FU), 18.8 and 8.8 for ZD1694, 17 and 0.7 for AG337, and 40 and 8.3 for BW1843U89 in SW-1573/2R160 and SW-1573/2R120, respectively [32].
  • The structures of TARC have been solved by molecular replacement in two space groups, triclinic (P1) and tetragonal (P4(1)), and refined to resolutions of 1.72 and 2.1 A, respectively, with R factors of 19.8% (R(free) = 24.1%) and 19.8% (R(free) = 27.7%), respectively [33].
  • Frequent expression of complement resistance factors CD46, CD55, and CD59 on gastrointestinal cancer cells limits the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody 17-1A [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of R Factors


  1. Transposition of R factor genes to bacteriophage lambda. Berg, D.E., Davies, J., Allet, B., Rochaix, J.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Retrovirus resistance factors Ref1 and Lv1 are species-specific variants of TRIM5alpha. Hatziioannou, T., Perez-Caballero, D., Yang, A., Cowan, S., Bieniasz, P.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase binary and ternary complexes. Specificity and catalytic mechanism. Kavanagh, K.L., Klimacek, M., Nidetzky, B., Wilson, D.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Evidence for a chromosomal site specifying amikacin resistance in multiresistant Serratia marcescens. John, J.F., McNeill, W.F., Price, K.E., Kresel, P.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. New tetracycline resistance determinant on R plasmids from Vibrio anguillarum. Aoki, T., Satoh, T., Kitao, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Primary structure of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specified by R plasmids. Shaw, W.V., Packman, L.C., Burleigh, B.D., Dell, A., Morris, H.R., Hartley, B.S. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance transposon Tn9. Alton, N.K., Vapnek, D. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Multiple patterns of resistance of human leukemia cell sublines to amsacrine analogues. Finlay, G.J., Baguley, B.C., Snow, K., Judd, W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. R factors in gentamicin-resistant organisms causing hospital infection. Richmond, A.S., Simberkoff, M.S., Rahal, J.J., Schaefler, S. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Determination of the binding sites of the proton transfer inhibitors Cd2+ and Zn2+ in bacterial reaction centers. Axelrod, H.L., Abresch, E.C., Paddock, M.L., Okamura, M.Y., Feher, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Refined crystal structures of guanine nucleotide complexes of adenylosuccinate synthetase from Escherichia coli. Poland, B.W., Hou, Z., Bruns, C., Fromm, H.J., Honzatko, R.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of tetracycline-resistant R-plasmids in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B). Burdett, V. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Novel dihydrofolate reductases isolated from epidemic strains of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Barg, N.L., Hutson, F.S., Wheeler, L.A., Thomson, C.J., Amyes, S.G., Wharton, M., Schaffner, W. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and norfloxacin. Li, X.Z., Livermore, D.M., Nikaido, H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of R plasmids mediating gentamicin resistance from Escherichia coli strains in Japan. Ike, Y., Fujisawa-Kon, N., Shimizu, S., Motohashi, K., Hashimoto, H., Mitsuhashi, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Epidemiology of nalidixic acid resistance and TEM-1- and TEM-52-mediated ampicillin resistance of Shigella sonnei isolates obtained in Korea between 1980 and 2000. Jeong, Y.S., Lee, J.C., Kang, H.Y., Yu, H.S., Lee, E.Y., Choi, C.H., Tae, S.H., Lee, Y.C., Cho, D.T., Seol, S.Y. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Quantitative correlation between penicillin resistance and beta-lactamase activity specified by the R plasmids R1, R1 bla-45, and RP1 in Escherichia coli K-12. Crowlesmith, I., Howe, T.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. CD40 induces resistance to TNF-mediated apoptosis in a fibroblast cell line. Hess, S., Gottfried, E., Smola, H., Grunwald, U., Schuchmann, M., Engelmann, H. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of Tn4451 and Tn4452, chloramphenicol resistance transposons from Clostridium perfringens. Abraham, L.J., Rood, J.I. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunochemical comparison between an oxacillin-hydrolyzing penicillinase of Aeromonas hydrophila and those mediated by R plasmids. Sawai, T., Takahashi, I., Nakagawa, H., Yamagishi, S. J. Bacteriol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Crystal structures of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig liver mitochondria with and without substrate. Kim, J.J., Wang, M., Paschke, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Structure refinement of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and its fructose 2,6-bisphosphate complex at 2.8 A resolution. Ke, H.M., Thorpe, C.M., Seaton, B., Lipscomb, W.N., Marcus, F. J. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Trimethoprim R plasmids isolated during long-term treatment of urinary tract infection with co-trimoxazole. Towner, K.J., Pearson, N.J., Cattell, W.R., O'Grady, F. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of (99m)Tc-sestamibi and doxorubicin to monitor inhibition of P-glycoprotein function. Muzzammil, T., Moore, M.J., Hedley, D., Ballinger, J.R. Br. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystal structures of the thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus type-1 in complex with deoxythymidine and ganciclovir. Brown, D.G., Visse, R., Sandhu, G., Davies, A., Rizkallah, P.J., Melitz, C., Summers, W.C., Sanderson, M.R. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Cameron, E., Pauling, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Correlation between cell killing by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) in six mammalian cell lines and binding of a cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)-DNA antiserum. Terheggen, P.M., Emondt, J.Y., Floot, B.G., Dijkman, R., Schrier, P.I., den Engelse, L., Begg, A.C. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Two distinct types of trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolate reductase specified by R-plasmids of different compatibility groups. Pattishall, K.H., Acar, J., Burchall, J.J., Goldstein, F.W., Harvey, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Crystal structure of Bacillus sp. GL1 xanthan lyase, which acts on the side chains of xanthan. Hashimoto, W., Nankai, H., Mikami, B., Murata, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. A monoclonal antibody-cobra venom factor conjugate increases the tumor-specific uptake of a 99mTc-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody by a two-step approach. Juhl, H., Sievers, M., Baltzer, K., Helmig, F., Wolf, H., Brenner, W., Kalthoff, H. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Multidrug-resistant tumor cells remain sensitive to a recombinant interleukin-4-Pseudomonas exotoxin, except when overexpressing the multidrug resistance protein MRP1. de Jong, M.C., Scheffer, G.L., Broxterman, H.J., Hooijberg, J.H., Slootstra, J.W., Meloen, R.H., Kreitman, R.J., Husain, S.R., Joshi, B.H., Puri, R.K., Scheper, R.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Cross-resistance to antifolates in multidrug resistant cell lines with P-glycoprotein or multidrug resistance protein expression. van Triest, B., Pinedo, H.M., Telleman, F., van der Wilt, C.L., Jansen, G., Peters, G.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Structures of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC). Asojo, O.A., Boulègue, C., Hoover, D.M., Lu, W., Lubkowski, J. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Frequent expression of complement resistance factors CD46, CD55, and CD59 on gastrointestinal cancer cells limits the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody 17-1A. Juhl, H., Helmig, F., Baltzer, K., Kalthoff, H., Henne-Bruns, D., Kremer, B. Journal of surgical oncology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Kinetic and crystallographic analyses support a sequential-ordered bi bi catalytic mechanism for Escherichia coli glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase. Zuccotti, S., Zanardi, D., Rosano, C., Sturla, L., Tonetti, M., Bolognesi, M. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Molecular nature of two beta-lactamase-specifying plasmids isolated from Haemophilus influenzae type b. De Graaff, J., Elwell, L.P., Falkow, S. J. Bacteriol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  37. Plasmid-mediated high-level gentamicin resistance among enteric bacteria isolated from pet turtles in Louisiana. Díaz, M.A., Cooper, R.K., Cloeckaert, A., Siebeling, R.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Resistance to antimicrobial agents and prevalence of R plasmids in Pasteurella multocida from swine. Coté, S., Harel, J., Higgins, R., Jacques, M. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Ofloxacin therapy of difficult-to-treat infections due to multiresistant organisms. el-Baz, W., Osman, L., Abd-el-Hamid, T., el-Bokl, M., Sabbour, M.S. Chemioterapia : international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy. (1987) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities