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Gene Review

Polk  -  polymerase (DNA directed), kappa

Mus musculus

Synonyms: DINB protein, DINP, DNA polymerase kappa, Dinb1
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Disease relevance of Polk

  • Recently several chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) have been reported [1].

High impact information on Polk


Biological context of Polk

  • Mutation rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci were studied in the germline of DNA polymerase kappa (Polkappa(-/-)) deficient mice [6].

Anatomical context of Polk

  • The short-term hepatic effects of DINP (CAS 68515-48-0, designated DINP-1) in rats and mice were evaluated at tumorigenic and nontumorigenic doses from previous chronic studies [7].

Associations of Polk with chemical compounds

  • To extend these observations, three other commercial phthalate ester plasticizers, di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-isohexyl phthalate (DIHP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were assessed using the same protocol [8].
  • In summary, treatment with DEHP, DINP, DIHP, and BBP did not result in significant elevations in total serum IgE, IL-4, or IL-13 [8].
  • The esters tested were: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-¿n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl¿ phthalate (610P), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-¿heptyl, nonyl, undecyl¿ phthalate (711P), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and di-undecyl phthalate (DUP) [9].

Other interactions of Polk

  • During the autumn of 1993, a focal outbreak was reported from Lee (5 cases) and Collier (3) Counties in southwest Florida. During the autumn of 1997, sporadic transmission to nine humans was reported from five Florida counties (Brevard [1 case], Polk [3], Charlotte [1], Lee [2], and Palm Beach [2]) [10].
  • The absence of DNA polymerase kappa does not affect somatic hypermutation of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain gene [11].


  1. Tumor induction in mouse liver: di-isononyl phthalate acts via peroxisome proliferation. Kaufmann, W., Deckardt, K., McKee, R.H., Butala, J.H., Bahnemann, R. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The Y-family DNA polymerase kappa (pol kappa) functions in mammalian nucleotide-excision repair. Ogi, T., Lehmann, A.R. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Polkappa protects mammalian cells against the lethal and mutagenic effects of benzo[a]pyrene. Ogi, T., Shinkai, Y., Tanaka, K., Ohmori, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Involvement of vertebrate Polkappa in translesion DNA synthesis across DNA monoalkylation damage. Takenaka, K., Ogi, T., Okada, T., Sonoda, E., Guo, C., Friedberg, E.C., Takeda, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of human and mouse genes encoding polkappa: testis-specific developmental regulation and AhR-dependent inducible transcription. Ogi, T., Mimura, J., Hikida, M., Fujimoto, H., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., Ohmori, H. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Elevated mutation rates in the germline of Polkappa mutant male mice. Burr, K.L., Velasco-Miguel, S., Duvvuri, V.S., McDaniel, L.D., Friedberg, E.C., Dubrova, Y.E. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparative in vivo hepatic effects of Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and related C7-C11 dialkyl phthalates on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), peroxisomal beta-oxidation (PBOX), and DNA synthesis in rat and mouse liver. Smith, J.H., Isenberg, J.S., Pugh, G., Kamendulis, L.M., Ackley, D., Lington, A.W., Klaunig, J.E. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Phthalate treatment does not influence levels of IgE or Th2 cytokines in B6C3F1 mice. Butala, J.H., David, R.M., Gans, G., McKee, R.H., Guo, T.L., Peachee, V.L., White, K.L. Toxicology (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Results of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay and the Balb/3t3 cell in vitro transformation assay for eight phthalate esters. Barber, E.D., Cifone, M., Rundell, J., Przygoda, R., Astill, B.D., Moran, E., Mulholland, A., Robinson, E., Schneider, B. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Frequency of Saint Louis encephalitis virus in humans from Florida, USA: 1990-1999. Day, J.F., Stark, L.M. J. Med. Entomol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The absence of DNA polymerase kappa does not affect somatic hypermutation of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Shimizu, T., Shinkai, Y., Ogi, T., Ohmori, H., Azuma, T. Immunol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
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