The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

DEHP     bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate

Synonyms: Fleximel, Etalon, Octoil, Behp, Mollan O, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Dioctyl phthalate

  • The numbers of Leydig cells in the testis of DEHP-treated rats were 40-60% higher than in control rats, indicating induction of Leydig cell hyperplasia [1].
  • In agreement with previous studies, hemolysis and microvesicle formation were also reduced in the presence of DEHP [2].
  • Although toxicokinetics seem to play a certain unclear role in the course of DEHP-related toxicity, toxicodynamic factors appear more decisive [3].
  • Also, DEHP fed for 24 weeks had no promoting effect on liver altered foci that were induced by FAA and produced little or no enhancement of the occurrence of FAA-induced liver neoplasms [4].
  • In the rats fed DEHP, substantial hepatomegaly and peroxisome proliferation were induced [4].

High impact information on Dioctyl phthalate

  • Daily human exposure to DEHP in the U.S. is significant, and occupational and clinical exposures from DEHP-plasticized medical devices, e.g., blood bags, hemodialysis tubing, and nasogastric feeding tubes, increase body burden levels [1].
  • Pooled RCC was aliquoted into PL146 (PVC), PL732 (polyolefin), and PL732 (with added DEHP) bags with samples removed weekly for analysis of osmotic fragility, deformability, and DEHP concentration [5].
  • The data are consistent with the hypothesis that DEHP inhibits the deterioration of the red blood cell membrane that results from the refrigerated storage of whole blood [6].
  • When 300 micrograms/mL DEHP was added to stored blood containing erythrocytes predominantly in the echinocyte conformation, many of the cells reverted to the normal discoid morphology [6].
  • In conclusion, when performed under conditions similar to the tumorigenicity studies, the degree of peroxisome proliferation correlated poorly with the relative hepatocarcinogenicity of DEHP and Wy-14,643 [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dioctyl phthalate


Biological context of Dioctyl phthalate


Anatomical context of Dioctyl phthalate


Associations of Dioctyl phthalate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Dioctyl phthalate

  • Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that a mutated activator protein 2-binding site markedly reduced the transcriptional activity of both promoters and abolished the minimal VLCAD promoter's response to DEHP treatment [21].
  • The immunoreactivity for EC-GPX was also significantly decreased in the DEHP-treated kidney compared with the control [22].
  • We conclude that DEHP is an inducer of the MDR1 gene in this cell line [23].
  • To examine such a hypothesis, the effect of DEHP on SXR-mediated transcription of the MDR1 gene was studied in the human colon adenocarcinoma-derived cell line, LS174T cells, which endogenously express SXR [23].
  • From the results, it is concluded that overexpression of PPARalpha or the transgene is not associated with the liver tumorigenesis induced by DEHP in rasH2 mice [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dioctyl phthalate

  • Furthermore, DEHP was investigated in two long-term bioassays with Syrian golden hamsters using both i.p. (max. total dose 54 g/kg) and inhalative (7-10 mg/kg) application [8].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All DEHP plasma concentrations were measured by gas chromatography [25].
  • Daily plasma concentrations for DEHP were collected until 3 days after decannulation from bypass in the ECMO group [25].
  • Serum concentrations of DEHP were determined from peripheral blood obtained before and after plateletpheresis, with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy [26].
  • Increase in serum DEHP was short-term as serum DEHP rapidly returned to levels obtained before apheresis within 3 hours after completion of the apheresis course [26].


  1. Phthalate-induced Leydig cell hyperplasia is associated with multiple endocrine disturbances. Akingbemi, B.T., Ge, R., Klinefelter, G.R., Zirkin, B.R., Hardy, M.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The effect of the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate on the survival of stored RBCs. AuBuchon, J.P., Estep, T.N., Davey, R.J. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatocarcinogenic potential of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rodents and its implications on human risk. Huber, W.W., Grasl-Kraupp, B., Schulte-Hermann, R. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Lack of rapid initiating, promoting or sequential syncarcinogenic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rat liver carcinogenesis. Williams, G.M., Maruyama, H., Tanaka, T. Carcinogenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. The effect of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on red cell deformability. Labow, R.S., Card, R.T., Rock, G. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of erythrocyte quality during the refrigerated storage of whole blood containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Estep, T.N., Pedersen, R.A., Miller, T.J., Stupar, K.R. Blood (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Relationship of hepatic peroxisome proliferation and replicative DNA synthesis to the hepatocarcinogenicity of the peroxisome proliferators di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio]acetic acid (Wy-14,643) in rats. Marsman, D.S., Cattley, R.C., Conway, J.G., Popp, J.A. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Various short-term assays and two long-term studies with the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in the Syrian golden hamster. Schmezer, P., Pool, B.L., Klein, R.G., Komitowski, D., Schmähl, D. Carcinogenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Scanning electron microscopy investigations on bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate treated Mycobacterium cells. Angelova, B., Fernandes, P., Spasova, D., Mutafov, S., Pinheiro, H.M., Cabral, J.M. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of di-isononyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and clofibrate in cynomolgus monkeys. Pugh, G., Isenberg, J.S., Kamendulis, L.M., Ackley, D.C., Clare, L.J., Brown, R., Lington, A.W., Smith, J.H., Klaunig, J.E. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Diethylhexyl phthalate as a factor in blood transfusion and haemodialysis. Baker, R.W. Toxicology (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Phthalate-organophosphate interactions: toxicity, penetration, and metabolism studies with house flies. Al-Badry, M.S., Knowles, C.O. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Suppression of choline-deficient diet-induced hepatocyte membrane lipid peroxidation in rats by the peroxisome proliferators 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio(N-beta-hydroxyethyl)- acetamide and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Perera, M.I., Katyal, S.L., Shinozuka, H. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Phosphorylation of specific rat plasma membrane proteins during promotion of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive hepatic foci and inhibition by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. DeAngelo, A.B., Garrett, C.T., Queral, A.E., Irwin, D. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-induced changes in liver estrogen metabolism and hyperplasia. Eagon, P.K., Chandar, N., Epley, M.J., Elm, M.S., Brady, E.P., Rao, K.N. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Phthalates rapidly increase production of reactive oxygen species in vivo: role of Kupffer cells. Rusyn, I., Kadiiska, M.B., Dikalova, A., Kono, H., Yin, M., Tsuchiya, K., Mason, R.P., Peters, J.M., Gonzalez, F.J., Segal, B.H., Holland, S.M., Thurman, R.G. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of oxidative stress in germ cell apoptosis induced by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Kasahara, E., Sato, E.F., Miyoshi, M., Konaka, R., Hiramoto, K., Sasaki, J., Tokuda, M., Nakano, Y., Inoue, M. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Relationship of oxidative damage to the hepatocarcinogenicity of the peroxisome proliferators di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and Wy-14,643. Conway, J.G., Tomaszewski, K.E., Olson, M.J., Cattley, R.C., Marsman, D.S., Popp, J.A. Carcinogenesis (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Involvement of retinoid X receptor alpha in coenzyme Q metabolism. Bentinger, M., Turunen, M., Zhang, X.X., Wan, Y.J., Dallner, G. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Lack of genotoxic activity of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in rat and human hepatocytes. Butterworth, B.E., Bermudez, E., Smith-Oliver, T., Earle, L., Cattley, R., Martin, J., Popp, J.A., Strom, S., Jirtle, R., Michalopoulos, G. Carcinogenesis (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of the bidirectional promoter region between the human genes encoding VLCAD and PSD-95. Zhang, L.F., Ding, J.H., Yang, B.Z., He, G.C., Roe, C. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of peroxisome proliferator on extracellular glutathione peroxidase in rat. Dobashi, K., Asayama, K., Nakane, T., Hayashibe, H., Kodera, K., Uchida, N., Nakazawa, S. Free Radic. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. The endocrine disrupting chemical, diethylhexyl phthalate, activates MDR1 gene expression in human colon cancer LS174T cells. Takeshita, A., Inagaki, K., Igarashi-Migitaka, J., Ozawa, Y., Koibuchi, N. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha or the human c-Ha-ras transgene is not involved in tumorigenesis induced by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rasH2 mice. Toyosawa, K., Okugawa, K., Teranishi, Y., Tanaka, K., Matsuoka, N. Cancer Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation exposes infants to the plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Karle, V.A., Short, B.L., Martin, G.R., Bulas, D.I., Getson, P.R., Luban, N.L., O'Brien, A.M., Rubin, R.J. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Donor exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate during plateletpheresis. Buchta, C., Bittner, C., Höcker, P., Macher, M., Schmid, R., Seger, C., Dettke, M. Transfusion (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities