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Chemical Compound Review

Repeftal     dimethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate

Synonyms: Solvanom, Fermine, Solvarone, Avolin, Mipax, ...
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Disease relevance of Avolin

  • Metabolism of dimethylphthalate by Micrococcus sp. strain 12B [1].
  • TWO BACTERIAL STRAINS: Arthrobacter sp. and Sphingomonas paucimobilis were isolated from soil by enrichment cultures using dimethylphthalate (DMP) or monomethylphthalate (MMP) as sole carbon source, respectively [2].
  • Both DMP and DBP were found to produce significant increases in the mutant frequency in the mouse lymphoma assay in the presence but not in the absence of an Aroclor-induced rat liver activation system (S-9) [3].

High impact information on Avolin

  • No significant changes in gene expression were detected in the nondevelopmentally toxic phthalate group (DMP, DEP, and DOTP) [4].
  • The absorption of undiluted phthalate diesters [dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)] has been measured in vitro through human and rat epidermal membranes [5].
  • Activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase was also inhibited by dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) after a single oral administration [6].
  • The dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were well separated within 16min by a C-18 column and eluted gradient from 40 to 90% aqueous acetonitrile (at pH 6.0) and 1.0 to 1.5mL/min flow-rate [7].
  • Fiber introduction mass spectrometry (FIMS)-a direct coupling of SPME and MS-using selective ion monitoring (SIM) was used to detect and quantify dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP) and dipropylphthalate (DPP) in mineral water [8].

Biological context of Avolin


Associations of Avolin with other chemical compounds

  • Thermodynamics of inclusion of alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins (CDs) with three diester precursors of polyesters, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl isophthalate (DMI), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were studied with different fluorescence spectroscopy techniques [9].
  • Aldehyde metabolites of the de-esterified alcohols are postulated to play a role in the positive results for DMP and DBP [3].
  • The LC50 values for DMP, DEP, DBP, and BBP were 28.1, 4.21, 0.63, and 0.46 mg/L for H. azteca; 68.2, 31.0, 2.64, and > 1.76 mg/L for C. tentans; and 246, 102, 2.48, and 1.23 mg/L for L. variegatus, respectively [10].
  • Comparative activity of three repellents viz., diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), diethyl phenyl-acetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) against bedbugs Cimex hemipterus (Fabr) was studied by applying repellent solution on the shaven skin of rabbits [11].
  • DBP, DEP, DMP and an unknown diester were produced from DEHP [12].

Gene context of Avolin

  • DEP and DBP were also in abundance, and DMP was rarely detected [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Avolin

  • A rapid and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection was developed for the quantitation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in cosmetic preparations [14].


  1. Metabolism of dimethylphthalate by Micrococcus sp. strain 12B. Eaton, R.W., Ribbons, D.W. J. Bacteriol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Dimethylphthalate hydrolysis by specific microbial esterase. Vega, D., Bastide, J. Chemosphere (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Results of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay and the Balb/3t3 cell in vitro transformation assay for eight phthalate esters. Barber, E.D., Cifone, M., Rundell, J., Przygoda, R., Astill, B.D., Moran, E., Mulholland, A., Robinson, E., Schneider, B. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene expression profiling following in utero exposure to phthalate esters reveals new gene targets in the etiology of testicular dysgenesis. Liu, K., Lehmann, K.P., Sar, M., Young, S.S., Gaido, K.W. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro absorption of some o-phthalate diesters through human and rat skin. Scott, R.C., Dugard, P.H., Ramsey, J.D., Rhodes, C. Environ. Health Perspect. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Hepatic effects of phthalate esters. Seth, P.K. Environ. Health Perspect. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Determination of phthalate esters from food-contacted materials by on-line microdialysis and liquid chromatography. Jen, J.F., Liu, T.C. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Determination of phthalates in water using fiber introduction mass spectrometry. Silva, R.C., Meurer, E.C., Eberlin, M.N., Augusto, F. The Analyst. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Thermodynamics of complexation of dimethyl esters of tere-, iso-, and phthalic acids with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins. Di Marino, A., Mendicuti, F. Applied spectroscopy. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos. 1. Aqueous exposures. Call, D.J., Markee, T.P., Geiger, D.L., Brooke, L.T., VandeVenter, F.A., Cox, D.A., Genisot, K.I., Robillard, K.A., Gorsuch, J.W., Parkerton, T.F., Reiley, M.C., Ankley, G.T., Mount, D.R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative activity of three repellents against bedbugs Cimex hemipterus (Fabr.). Kumar, S., Prakash, S., Rao, K.M. Indian J. Med. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Phthalate esters detected in various water samples and biodegradation of the phthalates by microbes isolated from river water. Hashizume, K., Nanya, J., Toda, C., Yasui, T., Nagano, H., Kojima, N. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Survey of phthalate pollution in arable soils in China. Hu, X.Y., Wen, B., Shan, X.Q. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of consumer cosmetic products for phthalate esters. Hubinger, J.C., Havery, D.C. Journal of cosmetic science. (2006) [Pubmed]
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