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Gene Review

psbD  -  photosystem II protein D2

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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High impact information on psbD

  • However, in double mutants carrying the nac2-26 mutation, as well as a mutation that prevents psaA splicing, splicing intermediates carrying psbD sequences are degraded [1].
  • The Nac2 gene of Chlamydomonas encodes a chloroplast TPR-like protein involved in psbD mRNA stability [2].
  • Using biolistic transformation and genetic crosses we have introduced chimeric genes consisting of the psbD leader fused to a reporter gene into the chloroplast in both wild-type and mutant nuclear backgrounds [3].
  • We conclude that expression of the psbA (D-1) and psbD (D-2) genes are regulated primarily at the transcriptional level during the light-induction period but at the translational level for the remainder of the cell cycle [4].
  • Identification of cis-acting RNA leader elements required for chloroplast psbD gene expression in Chlamydomonas [5].

Biological context of psbD

  • On the other hand, the psbD and atpA coding region portions did not affect chimeric gene expression [6].
  • Changing the PRB1 sequence from GGAG to AAAG had no detectable effect on psbD mRNA translation [5].
  • By using UV cross-linking assays, we have identified a 40-kDa RNA binding protein, which binds to the wild-type psbD leader, but is unable to recognize a nonfunctional leader mutant lacking the U-rich motif [7].
  • Analysis of these transcripts indicate that 1) exon 1 of psaA1 is transcribed separately from exon 2, 2) exon 2 is cotranscribed with the psbD gene, and 3) at least two nuclear gene products are required for exon 1-exon 2 trans-splicing [8].
  • Genetic crosses revealed that the suppressor mutations affect three unlinked nuclear loci, which may encode new factors involved in psbD gene expression [9].

Associations of psbD with chemical compounds

  • Change of a conserved alanine residue of the fourth TPR motif by site-directed mutagenesis leads to aggregation of Nac2 protein and completely abrogates its function, indicating that this TPR is important for proper folding of the protein and for psbD mRNA stability, processing and/or translation [2].

Other interactions of psbD

  • At least four polypeptides presented both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms (psbC, psbD, and psbH gene products, as well as an unidentified 5-kDa subunit) [10].
  • Light-regulated translation continues to operate in chimeric mRNAs containing the 5'-UTR of either the psbA or psbD mRNAs, despite translation of these two chimeric mRNAs at very different efficiencies, suggesting that translational efficiency and light-regulated translation are separate events [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of psbD

  • The psbD transcript which encodes the D2 protein is present in the mutant strains, but protein pulse-labeling and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that the synthesis of the D2 protein does not occur normally in these cells [12].
  • Radioactive labelling and Northern blotting demonstrated that the interruption of the Calvin cycle suppressed the synthesis de novo of chloroplast proteins, such as the D1 and D2 proteins, but did not affect the levels of psbA and psbD mRNAs [13].


  1. Mutation at the Chlamydomonas nuclear NAC2 locus specifically affects stability of the chloroplast psbD transcript encoding polypeptide D2 of PS II. Kuchka, M.R., Goldschmidt-Clermont, M., van Dillewijn, J., Rochaix, J.D. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. The Nac2 gene of Chlamydomonas encodes a chloroplast TPR-like protein involved in psbD mRNA stability. Boudreau, E., Nickelsen, J., Lemaire, S.D., Ossenbühl, F., Rochaix, J.D. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Determinants for stability of the chloroplast psbD RNA are located within its short leader region in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Nickelsen, J., van Dillewijn, J., Rahire, M., Rochaix, J.D. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of genes encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the photosystem II polypeptides D-1 and D-2 during the cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Herrin, D.L., Michaels, A.S., Paul, A.L. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of cis-acting RNA leader elements required for chloroplast psbD gene expression in Chlamydomonas. Nickelsen, J., Fleischmann, M., Boudreau, E., Rahire, M., Rochaix, J.D. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of coding regions on chloroplast gene expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Kasai, S., Yoshimura, S., Ishikura, K., Takaoka, Y., Kobayashi, K., Kato, K., Shinmyo, A. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. cis- and trans-Acting determinants for translation of psbD mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Ossenbühl, F., Nickelsen, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. trans-splicing of transcripts for the chloroplast psaA1 gene. In vivo requirement for nuclear gene products. Herrin, D.L., Schmidt, G.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutations at three different nuclear loci of Chlamydomonas suppress a defect in chloroplast psbD mRNA accumulation. Nickelsen, J. Curr. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Photosystem II particles from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Purification, molecular weight, small subunit composition, and protein phosphorylation. de Vitry, C., Diner, B.A., Popo, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Contribution of 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of plastid mRNAs to the expression of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast genes. Barnes, D., Franklin, S., Schultz, J., Henry, R., Brown, E., Coragliotti, A., Mayfield, S.P. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. A nuclear suppressor overcomes defects in the synthesis of the chloroplast psbD gene product caused by mutations in two distinct nuclear genes of Chlamydomonas. Wu, H.Y., Kuchka, M.R. Curr. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Interruption of the Calvin cycle inhibits the repair of Photosystem II from photodamage. Takahashi, S., Murata, N. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
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