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Gene Review

psbA  -  photosystem II protein D1

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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High impact information on psbA

  • A protein disulfide isomerase that is localized to the chloroplast and copurifies with cPABP was shown to modulate the binding of cPABP to the 5'-UTR of the psbA mRNA by reversibly changing the redox status of cPABP through redox potential or adenosine 5'-diphosphate-dependent phosphorylation [1].
  • Mutations within the 5' untranslated region of the psbA mRNA that disrupt the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, acting as a ribosome binding site, preclude translation and prevent mRNA processing [2].
  • We conclude that expression of the psbA (D-1) and psbD (D-2) genes are regulated primarily at the transcriptional level during the light-induction period but at the translational level for the remainder of the cell cycle [3].
  • However, autoregulation of translation of subunit D1 is not implicated in the recovery from photoinhibition, which involves an increased translation of psbA mRNA in response to the degradation of photodamaged D1 [4].
  • The structure and functional mode of photosystem II reaction center protein D1 can be studied by analyzing the effects of amino acid substitutions within the binding niche for QB, the second stable electron acceptor of photosystem II, on herbicide binding [5].

Biological context of psbA

  • Introns 1, 2, and 3 of psbA (with flanking exon sequences) were subcloned and transcribed in vitro [6].
  • These findings suggest that translation of chloroplast psbA mRNA is controlled by both linear photosynthetic electron transport, exerted by the reduction of the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system, and the relative activities of photosystems I and II, signaled by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool [7].
  • Introns 2 and 4 of the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts (Cr.psbA2 and Cr.psbA4, respectively) contain large free-standing open reading frames (ORFs) [8].
  • A polyclonal antibody elicited by a synthetic oligopeptide (14-mer), predicted from the psbA gene nucleotide sequence to be homologous to the COOH terminus of the precursor D1 of spinach, cross-reacts only with D1 of mutant LF-1 and not with mature D1 of spinach, Chlamydomonas, or of Scenedesmus WT [9].
  • A nuclear mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, hf261, deficient in the translation of the psbA mRNA, has reduced association of the psbA mRNA with ribosomes and is deficient in binding of the chloroplast localized poly (A) binding protein (cPAB1) to the psbA mRNA [10].

Associations of psbA with chemical compounds

  • We demonstrate that the 38 kDa precursor protein is imported into isolated chloroplasts and interacts with high specificity to uridine-rich regions within the 5'-untranslated region of the psbA mRNA [11].
  • A highly conserved C-terminal Gly is absent Unlike the psbA of Chlamydomonas species, which contains 2-4 large introns, the gene of Chlorella has no introns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[12]

Other interactions of psbA

  • While we had concluded that the synthesis of the psbC gene product (P6) was specifically deficient in this mutant, another laboratory has found that the synthesis of the psbA gene product, the herbicide-binding protein D1, was primarily affected [13].
  • An exogenous gene, placed between the 5'-upstream regions of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast genes, rbcL or psbA, and the 3'-end of the rbcL gene, do not have the same expression pattern as endogenous genes in the C. reinhardtii chloroplast [14].
  • Recombinant progeny were selected from two- and three-factor crosses involving point mutations conferring herbicide (dr) and antibiotic resistance (er and spr) in the psbA, 23S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes, respectively [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of psbA


  1. Protein disulfide isomerase as a regulator of chloroplast translational activation. Kim, J., Mayfield, S.P. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Processing of the psbA 5' untranslated region in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii depends upon factors mediating ribosome association. Bruick, R.K., Mayfield, S.P. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of genes encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the photosystem II polypeptides D-1 and D-2 during the cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Herrin, D.L., Michaels, A.S., Paul, A.L. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Chloroplast biogenesis of photosystem II cores involves a series of assembly-controlled steps that regulate translation. Minai, L., Wostrikoff, K., Wollman, F.A., Choquet, Y. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Site-specific mutagenesis of the D1 subunit of photosystem II in wild-type Chlamydomonas. Przibilla, E., Heiss, S., Johanningmeier, U., Trebst, A. Plant Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Self-splicing of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast psbA introns. Herrin, D.L., Bao, Y., Thompson, A.J., Chen, Y.F. Plant Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Translation of chloroplast psbA mRNA is regulated by signals initiated by both photosystems II and I. Trebitsh, T., Danon, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Mobile self-splicing group I introns from the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: highly efficient homing of an exogenous intron containing its own promoter. Odom, O.W., Holloway, S.P., Deshpande, N.N., Lee, J., Herrin, D.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. COOH-terminal processing of polypeptide D1 of the photosystem II reaction center of Scenedesmus obliquus is necessary for the assembly of the oxygen-evolving complex. Diner, B.A., Ries, D.F., Cohen, B.N., Metz, J.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. A nuclear gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Tba1, encodes a putative oxidoreductase required for translation of the chloroplast psbA mRNA. Somanchi, A., Barnes, D., Mayfield, S.P. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and characterization of a novel RNA binding protein that associates with the 5'-untranslated region of the chloroplast psbA mRNA. Barnes, D., Cohen, A., Bruick, R.K., Kantardjieff, K., Fowler, S., Efuet, E., Mayfield, S.P. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Repetitive sequence-mediated rearrangements in Chlorella ellipsoidea chloroplast DNA: completion of nucleotide sequence of the large inverted repeat. Yamada, T. Curr. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. A nuclear mutation affects the synthesis of the chloroplast psbA gene production Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Girard-Bascou, J., Pierre, Y., Drapier, D. Curr. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of coding regions on chloroplast gene expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Kasai, S., Yoshimura, S., Ishikura, K., Takaoka, Y., Kobayashi, K., Kato, K., Shinmyo, A. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Nonrandom distribution of chloroplast recombination events in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: evidence for a hotspot and an adjacent cold region. Newman, S.M., Harris, E.H., Johnson, A.M., Boynton, J.E., Gillham, N.W. Genetics (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of three genes encoding the subunits of light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase in Chlorella protothecoides CS-41. Shi, C., Shi, X. Biotechnol. Prog. (2006) [Pubmed]
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