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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Biolistics

  • Although biolistic inoculation of either vector reduced insulitis and prevented diabetes, the protracted mIL-4 expression afforded by the EBV vector resulted in Th2-type responses in the periphery and pancreas and more significant protection from the onset of diabetes [1].
  • The response of human dendritic cells to recombinant adenovirus, recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin and biolistic methods of antigen delivery: different induction of contact-dependant and soluble signals [2].
  • The biolistic transfer is efficient for viroid "thermomutants", which exhibit low or no infectivity with conventional mechanical inoculation with Carborundum [3].
  • The outer membrane protein F gene (oprF) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recently shown by us to protect mice from P. aeruginosa chronic pulmonary infection when used as a DNA vaccine administered by three biolistic (gene gun) intradermal inoculations given at 2-week intervals [4].

High impact information on Biolistics

  • To investigate mechanisms of localization, we used biolistic techniques to express GFP-tagged PSD-95 (PSD-95:GFP) and the K(+)-selective channel Kv1.4 in slices of rat cortex [5].
  • We investigated the editing of short 'spliced' and 'unspliced' ndhA gene fragments from spinach in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) in vivo using biolistic transformation [6].
  • This allele was introduced into the tobacco plastid genome by biolistic transformation to replace the wild-type ycf9 allele [7].
  • Using biolistic transformation, ycf4 and ycf3 were disrupted with a chloroplast selectable marker cassette [8].
  • Using site-directed mutagenesis and biolistic transformation, we have identified two major RNA stability determinants within the first 12 nucleotides at the 5' end and near position -30 relative to the AUG initiation codon of psbD [9].

Biological context of Biolistics

  • We have used biolistic transfection of organotypic slices of P12 cerebellum to identify a 40-bp element from the calbindin promoter that is necessary and sufficient for Purkinje cell specific expression in this transient in situ assay [10].
  • A biolistic approach was used to integrate two fusion genes, one encoding aminoglycoside-3-adenyltransferase (aadA) and the first 123 aa of the Ssp DnaE intein (In) and the other encoding 36 C-terminal amino acid residues of the Ssp DnaE intein (Ic) and soluble modified green fluorescent protein (smGFP) into N. tabacum plastids [11].
  • These results suggest that the nonviral, gene gun technique offers an efficient alternative approach for transient transgenic studies of hematopoietic cells and may provide new possibilities for certain cancer gene therapy strategies using CD34+ cells [12].
  • The oprF gene was cloned into plasmid vector pVR1020, and the plasmid vaccines were delivered to mice by biolistic (gene gun) intradermal inoculation [13].
  • This study demonstrates by lipid transfection into an immortalized dopaminergic cell line and biolistic transfection into dopamine neurons in neonatal rat midbrain slices that the human nine-repeat DAT VNTR can enhance transcription [14].

Anatomical context of Biolistics

  • By using biolistic transformation, we have relocated the nuclear RIP1 gene into mitochondria [15].
  • Many studies have identified dendritic cells (DC) as the central players in inducing immunity upon biolistic DNA vaccination; however, none of these studies directly quantify DC-mediated responses in comparison with immunity triggered by all Ag- and MHC-expressing cells [16].
  • Musculus glutaeus superficialis of C57BL/6J and quadriceps femoris of mdx male mice were opened surgically under anesthesia and bombarded by means of the gene-gun technique originally developed by us [17].
  • To determine the effects of increased microglial expression of M-CSFR in a complex organotypic environment, we developed a system for biolistic transfection of microglia in hippocampal slice cultures [18].
  • Dozens of astrocytes can be labeled in single slice cultures by gene gun-mediated ballistic delivery of gold or tungsten particles carrying cDNAs (Biolistics), lipophilic dyes (DiOlistics), or fluorescent intracellular calcium indicators (Calistics) [19].

Associations of Biolistics with chemical compounds

  • We have introduced the HMW-GS 1Ax1 gene, known to be associated with good bread-making quality, into the Bob White cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in which it is not present in nature, by the biolistic bombardment of cultured immature embryos [20].
  • Isoform-specific induction of a retinoid-responsive antigen after biolistic transfection of chimaeric retinoic acid/thyroid hormone receptors into a regenerating limb [21].
  • Biolistics. The retinoic acid supergun affair [22].
  • The mitochondrial bc(1) complex catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol and the reduction of cytochrome (cyt) c. The cyt b mutation A144F has been introduced in yeast by the biolistic method [23].
  • Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription [24].

Gene context of Biolistics


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Biolistics

  • Transformation efficiency by ATMT in C. neoformans was comparable to either electroporation or biolistic transformation and gave superior efficiencies in serotypes B and C, but unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenine auxotrophy did not increase ATMT efficiency in C. neoformans or C. gattii [30].


  1. Biolistic-mediated interleukin 4 gene transfer prevents the onset of type 1 diabetes. Cameron, M.J., Strathdee, C.A., Holmes, K.D., Arreaza, G.A., Dekaban, G.A., Delovitch, T.L. Hum. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The response of human dendritic cells to recombinant adenovirus, recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin and biolistic methods of antigen delivery: different induction of contact-dependant and soluble signals. Smith, S.G., Patel, P.M., Selby, P.J., Jackson, A.M. Immunol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Biolistic inoculation of plants with viroid nucleic acids. Matousek, J., Orctová, L., Steger, G., Riesner, D. J. Virol. Methods (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhancement of the protective efficacy of an oprF DNA vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Price, B.M., Barten Legutki, J., Galloway, D.R., von Specht, B.U., Gilleland, L.B., Gilleland, H.E., Staczek, J. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular determinants for subcellular localization of PSD-95 with an interacting K+ channel. Arnold, D.B., Clapham, D.E. Neuron (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Heterologous, splicing-dependent RNA editing in chloroplasts: allotetraploidy provides trans-factors. Schmitz-Linneweber, C., Tillich, M., Herrmann, R.G., Maier, R.M. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A small chloroplast-encoded protein as a novel architectural component of the light-harvesting antenna. Ruf, S., Biehler, K., Bock, R. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The chloroplast ycf3 and ycf4 open reading frames of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are required for the accumulation of the photosystem I complex. Boudreau, E., Takahashi, Y., Lemieux, C., Turmel, M., Rochaix, J.D. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of cis-acting RNA leader elements required for chloroplast psbD gene expression in Chlamydomonas. Nickelsen, J., Fleischmann, M., Boudreau, E., Rahire, M., Rochaix, J.D. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. A calcium responsive element that regulates expression of two calcium binding proteins in Purkinje cells. Arnold, D.B., Heintz, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Protein trans-splicing in transgenic plant chloroplast: reconstruction of herbicide resistance from split genes. Chin, H.G., Kim, G.D., Marin, I., Mersha, F., Evans, T.C., Chen, L., Xu, M.Q., Pradhan, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Cytokine transgene expression and promoter usage in primary CD34+ cells using particle-mediated gene delivery. Ye, Z.Q., Qiu, P., Burkholder, J.K., Turner, J., Culp, J., Roberts, T., Shahidi, N.T., Yang, N.S. Hum. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection in mice by genetic immunization against outer membrane protein F (OprF) of P. aeruginosa. Price, B.M., Galloway, D.R., Baker, N.R., Gilleland, L.B., Staczek, J., Gilleland, H.E. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. The dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) variable number of tandem repeats domain enhances transcription in dopamine neurons. Michelhaugh, S.K., Fiskerstrand, C., Lovejoy, E., Bannon, M.J., Quinn, J.P. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The Rieske FeS protein encoded and synthesized within mitochondria complements a deficiency in the nuclear gene. Golik, P., Bonnefoy, N., Szczepanek, T., Saint-Georges, Y., Lazowska, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Insufficient APC capacities of dendritic cells in gene gun-mediated DNA vaccination. Lauterbach, H., Gruber, A., Ried, C., Cheminay, C., Brocker, T. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Bacterial beta-galactosidase and human dystrophin genes are expressed in mouse skeletal muscle fibers after ballistic transfection. Zelenin, A.V., Kolesnikov, V.A., Tarasenko, O.A., Shafei, R.A., Zelenina, I.A., Mikhailov, V.V., Semenova, M.L., Kovalenko, D.V., Artemyeva, O.V., Ivaschenko, T.E., Evgrafov, O.V., Dickson, G., Baranovand, V.S. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Biolistic expression of the macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor in organotypic cultures induces an inflammatory response. Mitrasinovic, O.M., Robinson, C.C., Tenen, D.G., Lee, Y.L., Poon, C., Murphy, G.M. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Ballistic labeling and dynamic imaging of astrocytes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Benediktsson, A.M., Schachtele, S.J., Green, S.H., Dailey, M.E. J. Neurosci. Methods (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Integration and expression of the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 gene into wheat. Altpeter, F., Vasil, V., Srivastava, V., Vasil, I.K. Nat. Biotechnol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Isoform-specific induction of a retinoid-responsive antigen after biolistic transfection of chimaeric retinoic acid/thyroid hormone receptors into a regenerating limb. Pecorino, L.T., Lo, D.C., Brockes, J.P. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Biolistics. The retinoic acid supergun affair. Maden, M. Curr. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. QO site deficiency can be compensated by extragenic mutations in the hinge region of the iron-sulfur protein in the bc1 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Brasseur, G., Lemesle-Meunier, D., Reinaud, F., Meunier, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB. Eastmond, P.J., Jones, R.L. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. The deletion of petG in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupts the cytochrome bf complex. Berthold, D.A., Schmidt, C.L., Malkin, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. The chloroplast gene encoding ribosomal protein S4 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii spans an inverted repeat--unique sequence junction and can be mutated to suppress a streptomycin dependence mutation in ribosomal protein S12. Randolph-Anderson, B.L., Boynton, J.E., Gillham, N.W., Huang, C., Liu, X.Q. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Mouse model of respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae infection for a genomic screen of subunit vaccine candidates. Li, D., Borovkov, A., Vaglenov, A., Wang, C., Kim, T., Gao, D., Sykes, K.F., Kaltenboeck, B. Vaccine (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Gene-gun biolistic immunization encoding glutamic Acid decarboxylase: a model for studying langerhans cell abnormalities and mimicry in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Joussemet, B., Vu, A.T., Sai, P., Bach, J.M. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Development of plant regeneration and transformation protocols for the desiccation-sensitive weeping lovegrass Eragrostis curvula. Ncanana, S., Brandt, W., Lindsey, G., Farrant, J. Plant Cell Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. High frequency transformation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. McClelland, C.M., Chang, Y.C., Kwon-Chung, K.J. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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