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Gene Review

GDF9  -  growth differentiation factor 9

Bos taurus

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High impact information on GDF9


Biological context of GDF9


Anatomical context of GDF9


Associations of GDF9 with chemical compounds

  • As was observed for progesterone, the species of origin of GDF9 affected inhibin production by ovine granulosa cells where mGDF9 inhibited while oGDF9 stimulated production [7].
  • In comparison, 300 and 600 ng/ml GDF-9 decreased (P<0.05) estradiol production by 27% and 71% respectively, whereas 150 ng/ml GDF-9 was without effect (P>0.10) [4].

Other interactions of GDF9

  • In contrast, GDF-9 increased basal and IGF-I-induced granulosa cell numbers by over 2-fold [4].
  • GDF-9 and BMPs initiate signaling by assembling type I (ALK-3, ALK-5 and ALK-6) and type II (BMPRII) receptors [6].


  1. Oocytes prevent cumulus cell apoptosis by maintaining a morphogenic paracrine gradient of bone morphogenetic proteins. Hussein, T.S., Froiland, D.A., Amato, F., Thompson, J.G., Gilchrist, R.B. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Oocyte-secreted factors enhance oocyte developmental competence. Hussein, T.S., Thompson, J.G., Gilchrist, R.B. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Growth differentiation factor-9 induces Smad2 activation and inhibin B production in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells. Kaivo-Oja, N., Bondestam, J., Kämäräinen, M., Koskimies, J., Vitt, U., Cranfield, M., Vuojolainen, K., Kallio, J.P., Olkkonen, V.M., Hayashi, M., Moustakas, A., Groome, N.P., ten Dijke, P., Hsueh, A.J., Ritvos, O. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Growth differentiation factor-9 has divergent effects on proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine granulosa cells. Spicer, L.J., Aad, P.Y., Allen, D., Mazerbourg, S., Hsueh, A.J. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Meat and Livestock Association Plenary Lecture 2005. Oocyte signalling molecules and their effects on reproduction in ruminants. McNatty, K.P., Lawrence, S., Groome, N.P., Meerasahib, M.F., Hudson, N.L., Whiting, L., Heath, D.A., Juengel, J.L. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Hormonal regulation of expression of growth differentiation factor-9 receptor type I and II genes in the bovine ovarian follicle. Jayawardana, B.C., Shimizu, T., Nishimoto, H., Kaneko, E., Tetsuka, M., Miyamoto, A. Reproduction (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 co-operate to regulate granulosa cell function in ruminants. McNatty, K.P., Juengel, J.L., Reader, K.L., Lun, S., Myllymaa, S., Lawrence, S.B., Western, A., Meerasahib, M.F., Mottershead, D.G., Groome, N.P., Ritvos, O., Laitinen, M.P. Reproduction (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Genes preferentially expressed in bovine oocytes revealed by subtractive and suppressive hybridization. Pennetier, S., Uzbekova, S., Guyader-Joly, C., Humblot, P., Mermillod, P., Dalbiès-Tran, R. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
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