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Gene Review

psq  -  pipsqueak

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: BTB-V, BtbV, CG2368, Dmel\CG2368, PSQ, ...
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High impact information on psq

  • Although the gene was previously identified and described as a member of the maternal posterior group of genes, the strong semilethal alleles isolated here demonstrate a specific requirement for psq function downstream of svp for the development of photoreceptors R3/R4 [1].
  • Moreover, strong psq alleles are dominant suppressors of a svp-induced cone cell transformation phenotype [1].
  • Genetic interaction studies provide evidence that Psq and GAF act together in the transcriptional activation and silencing of homeotic genes [2].
  • Pipsqueak and GAGA factor act in concert as partners at homeotic and many other loci [2].
  • A complete colocalization of Psq and GAF on polytene interphase chromosomes and mitotic chromosomes suggests that the two proteins cooperate as general partners not only at homeotic loci, but also at hundreds of other chromosomal sites [2].

Biological context of psq

  • The BabCD is a composite DNA binding domain with a psq motif and an AT-Hook motif; both motifs are required for DNA binding activity [3].
  • The functional relevance of psq to the silencing mechanism is strongly supported by its synergistic interactions with a subset of Pc-G that cause misexpression of homeotic genes [4].
  • This suggests that the defect lies either in transmission of the FGF signal from the basal surface to the rest of the cell or in the apical cell migration and tubulogenesis machinery. rib encodes a nuclear protein with a BTB/POZ domain and Pipsqueak DNA-binding motif [5].
  • About half of the members of the Tramtrack group contain a Psq domain, while the other half is made up of proteins that contain a zinc finger domain [6].
  • Among other developmental regulators, the Drosophila cell death protein E93 was found to contain a Psq motif and to define a third subgroup of Psq domain proteins [6].

Regulatory relationships of psq

  • The pipsqueak (psq) gene is expressed at high levels in the R3/R4 precursors during eye development and this expression depends on seven-up (svp) gene function [1].

Other interactions of psq


  1. pipsqueak encodes a novel nuclear protein required downstream of seven-up for the development of photoreceptors R3 and R4. Weber, U., Siegel, V., Mlodzik, M. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Pipsqueak and GAGA factor act in concert as partners at homeotic and many other loci. Schwendemann, A., Lehmann, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The Drosophila melanogaster BTB proteins bric à brac bind DNA through a composite DNA binding domain containing a pipsqueak and an AT-Hook motif. Lours, C., Bardot, O., Godt, D., Laski, F.A., Couderc, J.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. pipsqueak encodes a factor essential for sequence-specific targeting of a polycomb group protein complex. Huang, D.H., Chang, Y.L., Yang, C.C., Pan, I.C., King, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila ribbon gene encodes a nuclear BTB domain protein that promotes epithelial migration and morphogenesis. Shim, K., Blake, K.J., Jack, J., Krasnow, M.A. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila Pipsqueak protein defines a new family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. Siegmund, T., Lehmann, M. Dev. Genes Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Distal antenna and distal antenna related encode nuclear proteins containing pipsqueak motifs involved in antenna development in Drosophila. Emerald, B.S., Curtiss, J., Mlodzik, M., Cohen, S.M. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression analysis of the Drosophila pipsqueak family members fernández/distal antenna and hernández/distal antenna related. Suzanne, M. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. pipsqueak, an early acting member of the posterior group of genes, affects vasa level and germ cell-somatic cell interaction in the developing egg chamber. Siegel, V., Jongens, T.A., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
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