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Gene Review

ITGA9  -  integrin, alpha 9

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ALPHA-RLC, ITGA4L, Integrin alpha-9, Integrin alpha-RLC, RLC
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Disease relevance of ITGA9

  • Interestingly, however, alpha RLC was abundantly expressed in fetal lung and lung cancers, particularly small cell lung cancers (SCLC) [1].
  • We report here the identification of distinct missense mutations in a skeletal/ventricular ELC and RLC, each of which are associated with a rare variant of cardiac hypertrophy as well as abnormal skeletal muscle [2].
  • We studied excitation thresholds and arrhythmias produced in cultured chick embryo myocardial cells subjected to electric shocks using rectangular, untruncated resistor-capacitor (RC), and critically damped resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) waveforms with variable intensities while photocell mechanograms were recorded [3].

High impact information on ITGA9

  • Only four genes were discovered in this interval, namely, APRG1, ITGA9, HYA22 and VILL [4].
  • The endogenous RLC was removed from skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers, and replaced with either rat wildtype vRLC or recombinant rat vRLC (G13T, F18L, E22K, and P95A) [5].
  • Engineered LC1 and RLC were labeled with red and green fluorescent probes, respectively, and exchanged with native light chains of striated muscle [6].
  • To test this possibility, the angular motion of LC1 and RLC was measured simultaneously during muscle contraction [6].
  • The present studies in 3T3-F442A adipocytes demonstrate the novel finding that insulin significantly increases phosphorylation of the myosin II RLC in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner [7].

Biological context of ITGA9

  • The DNA sequence results of an about 685-kb region indicated that the size of the homozygously deleted segment was 638,489 bp, in which we identified only four genes including the integrin alpha RLC and the trans-Golgi p230 genes, both reported previously [8].
  • The head can be divided into a globular motor domain of approximately 770 amino acids that contains the catalytic and actin binding sites, and a neck region of approximately 70 amino acids which binds one essential and one regulatory light chain (ELC and RLC) [9].
  • Besides identifying specific targets for functional studies of HSRLC by mutagenesis, the results support the concept of an ancestral gene from which the RLC genes have evolved [10].
  • Acupuncture until De Qi is effectively equivalent to charging the capacitor Ceq of the RLC resonator in the transmission line [11].

Anatomical context of ITGA9

  • Third, the algorithm predicts the undistorted radial artery pressure, removing the resonance artifacts by inverse-filtering the digitized monitored pressure waveform using the RLC circuit derived previously [12].

Associations of ITGA9 with chemical compounds

  • The N-terminal residues in essential (ELC) and regulatory (RLC) light chains were blocked and were identified to be trimethyl alanine [13].
  • HSRLC is unique among all RLC sequences in having three consecutive potential phosphorylatable serine residues [10].
  • The clusters of hydrophobic residues that are believed to stabilize the binding of NH2-terminal of RLC with myosin heavy chain show high sequence conservation in RLCs [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ITGA9

  • The standing wave within each segment of the channel separated by acupoints is in natural oscillation thus the segment may be analyzed as a lambda/4 open circuit that behaves like a series RLC resonator [11].


  1. Aberrant upregulation of a novel integrin alpha subunit gene at 3p21.3 in small cell lung cancer. Hibi, K., Yamakawa, K., Ueda, R., Horio, Y., Murata, Y., Tamari, M., Uchida, K., Takahashi, T., Nakamura, Y., Takahashi, T. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutations in either the essential or regulatory light chains of myosin are associated with a rare myopathy in human heart and skeletal muscle. Poetter, K., Jiang, H., Hassanzadeh, S., Master, S.R., Chang, A., Dalakas, M.C., Rayment, I., Sellers, J.R., Fananapazir, L., Epstein, N.D. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Determination of safety factor for defibrillator waveforms in cultured heart cells. Jones, J.L., Jones, R.E. Am. J. Physiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Discovery of frequent homozygous deletions in chromosome 3p21.3 LUCA and AP20 regions in renal, lung and breast carcinomas. Senchenko, V.N., Liu, J., Loginov, W., Bazov, I., Angeloni, D., Seryogin, Y., Ermilova, V., Kazubskaya, T., Garkavtseva, R., Zabarovska, V.I., Kashuba, V.I., Kisselev, L.L., Minna, J.D., Lerman, M.I., Klein, G., Braga, E.A., Zabarovsky, E.R. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Mechanical defects of muscle fibers with myosin light chain mutants that cause cardiomyopathy. Roopnarine, O. Biophys. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulatory and essential light chains of myosin rotate equally during contraction of skeletal muscle. Borejdo, J., Ushakov, D.S., Akopova, I. Biophys. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Implication of phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Choi, Y.O., Ryu, H.J., Kim, H.R., Song, Y.S., Kim, C., Lee, W., Choe, H., Leem, C.H., Jang, Y.J. Exp. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Sequence analysis of a 685-kb genomic region on chromosome 3p22-p21.3 that is homozygously deleted in a lung carcinoma cell line. Ishikawa, S., Kai, M., Tamari, M., Takei, Y., Takeuchi, K., Bandou, H., Yamane, Y., Ogawa, M., Nakamura, Y. DNA Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of myosin light chains. Trybus, K.M. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Human fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 cDNA: isolation, tissue specific expression of the single copy gene, comparative sequence analysis of isoforms and evolutionary relationships. Sachdev, S., Raychowdhury, M.K., Sarkar, S. DNA Seq. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. A birdcage model for the Chinese Meridian System: part I. A channel as a transmission line. Yung, K.T. Am. J. Chin. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Semiautomatic algorithm to remove resonance artifacts from the direct radial artery pressure. Schwid, H.A. Biomedical instrumentation & technology / Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Human cardiac myosin light chains: sequence comparisons between myosin LC1 and LC2 from normal and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathic hearts. Holt, J.C., Caulfield, J.B., Norton, P., Chantler, P.D., Slayter, H.S., Margossian, S.S. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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