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Gene Review

tsr  -  twinstar

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 12/8, ADF, ADF/cofilin, Adf, CG4254, ...
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High impact information on tsr

  • A similar phenotype was seen in testes treated with cytochalasin B and has been noted previously in mutants at the twinstar locus, a gene that encodes a Drosophila member of the cofilin/ADF family of actin-severing proteins [1].
  • Dephosphorylating cofilin appears to be the major function of Slingshot in regulating axon growth in vivo [2].
  • Here we show that the actin depolymerization factor cofilin is essential for axon growth in Drosophila neurons [2].
  • We find that profilin and cofilin regulate actin-filament formation throughout the cell cortex [3].
  • There is also evidence that cofilin/ADF enhances cell motility, although a direct requirement in vivo has not yet been shown [4].

Biological context of tsr


Associations of tsr with chemical compounds

  • Slingshot cofilin phosphatase localization is regulated by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and regulates cytoskeletal structure in the developing Drosophila eye [7].

Enzymatic interactions of tsr


Other interactions of tsr

  • Thus, results from a misexpression screen in the eye led us to a putative novel Rac1-Cdi-Cofilin pathway, regulated by RacGAP(84C), coordinating Drosophila spermatogenesis [10].
  • These findings, coupled with the analysis of anillin behavior in twinstar mutants, suggested a model on the role of anillin during cytokinesis [11].
  • These observations suggest that the LIMK-cofilin signaling pathway for regulating actin filament dynamics is evolutionarily conserved between Drosophila and mammals [9].


  1. Cooperative interactions between the central spindle and the contractile ring during Drosophila cytokinesis. Giansanti, M.G., Bonaccorsi, S., Williams, B., Williams, E.V., Santolamazza, C., Goldberg, M.L., Gatti, M. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Rho GTPases regulate axon growth through convergent and divergent signaling pathways. Ng, J., Luo, L. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Spatial control of the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila epithelial cells. Baum, B., Perrimon, N. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Cofilin/ADF is required for cell motility during Drosophila ovary development and oogenesis. Chen, J., Godt, D., Gunsalus, K., Kiss, I., Goldberg, M., Laski, F.A. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutations in twinstar, a Drosophila gene encoding a cofilin/ADF homologue, result in defects in centrosome migration and cytokinesis. Gunsalus, K.C., Bonaccorsi, S., Williams, E., Verni, F., Gatti, M., Goldberg, M.L. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Twinfilin is required for actin-dependent developmental processes in Drosophila. Wahlström, G., Vartiainen, M., Yamamoto, L., Mattila, P.K., Lappalainen, P., Heino, T.I. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Slingshot cofilin phosphatase localization is regulated by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and regulates cytoskeletal structure in the developing Drosophila eye. Rogers, E.M., Hsiung, F., Rodrigues, A.B., Moses, K. Mech. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila p21 activated kinase Mbt regulates the actin cytoskeleton and adherens junctions to control photoreceptor cell morphogenesis. Menzel, N., Schneeberger, D., Raabe, T. Mech. Dev. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. A Drosophila homolog of LIM-kinase phosphorylates cofilin and induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Ohashi, K., Hosoya, T., Takahashi, K., Hing, H., Mizuno, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. A screen for modifiers of RacGAP(84C) gain-of-function in the Drosophila eye revealed the LIM kinase Cdi/TESK1 as a downstream effector of Rac1 during spermatogenesis. Raymond, K., Bergeret, E., Avet-Rochex, A., Griffin-Shea, R., Fauvarque, M.O. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of anillin in meiotic cytokinesis of Drosophila males. Giansanti, M.G., Bonaccorsi, S., Gatti, M. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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