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Gene Review

BIN2  -  Shaggy-related protein kinase eta

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of BIN2

  • We have isolated two new BR-insensitive mutants (dwarf12-1D and dwf12-2D) after screening Arabidopsis ethyl methanesulfonate mutant populations. dwf12 mutants displayed the characteristic morphology of previously reported BR dwarfs including short stature, short round leaves, infertility, and abnormal de-etiolation [1].

High impact information on BIN2

  • BES1 is phosphorylated and appears to be destabilized by the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) BIN2, a negative regulator of the BR pathway [2].
  • Here, we describe four recessive alleles of the UCU2 gene, whose homozygotes display helical rotation of several organs in addition to other phenotypic traits shared with ucu1 mutants [3].
  • We propose that BES1/BZR1 are two nuclear components of BR signaling that are negatively regulated by BIN2 through a phosphorylation-initiated process [4].
  • It was proposed that BR signals, perceived by a membrane BR receptor complex that contains the leucine (Leu)-rich repeat receptor-like kinase BRI1, inactivate BIN2 to relieve its inhibitory effect on unknown downstream BR-signaling components [4].
  • In addition, dwf12 mutants exhibited several unique phenotypes, including severe downward curling of the leaves [1].

Biological context of BIN2

  • Genetic analysis of the bin2 (BR-INSENSITIVE 2) mutant indicated that the BR-insensitive dwarf phenotype was due to a semidominant mutation in the BIN2 gene that mapped to the middle of chromosome IV between the markers CH42 and AG [5].
  • A gene dosage experiment using triploid plants suggested that the bin2 phenotypes were likely caused by either neomorphic or hypermorphic gain-of-function mutations in the BIN2 gene [5].
  • In this paper we report the characterization of three novel members of the Arabidopsis shaggy-related protein kinase (ASK) multigene family, named ASKdzeta (ASKzeta), ASKetha (ASKeta) and ASKiota (ASKiota) [6].
  • Sequence analyses indicate that the tetraploid cotton genome includes four genes with strong sequence similarity to BIN 2 [7].

Associations of BIN2 with chemical compounds

  • We have positionally cloned the UCU1 gene, which encodes an AtSK protein involved in the cross-talk between auxin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, as indicated by the responses of ucu1 mutants to plant hormones and the phenotypes of double mutants involving ucu1 alleles [8].
  • Lithium chloride treatment was able to suppress the gain-of-function bin2-1 mutation but had a much weaker effect on a strong BR receptor mutant, suggesting the presence of a BIN2-independent regulatory step downstream of BR receptor activation [9].

Other interactions of BIN2

  • BES1 and its closest homolog, BZR1, which was also uncovered as a potential BR-signaling protein, display specific interactions with BIN2 in yeast [4].
  • In addition to the BR-insensitive dwarf phenotype, bin2 mutants exhibited BR insensitivity when assayed for root growth inhibition and feedback inhibition of CPD gene expression [5].


  1. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid-insensitive dwarf12 mutants are semidominant and defective in a glycogen synthase kinase 3beta-like kinase. Choe, S., Schmitz, R.J., Fujioka, S., Takatsuto, S., Lee, M.O., Yoshida, S., Feldmann, K.A., Tax, F.E. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. BES1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to brassinosteroids to regulate gene expression and promote stem elongation. Yin, Y., Wang, Z.Y., Mora-Garcia, S., Li, J., Yoshida, S., Asami, T., Chory, J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling. Pérez-Pérez, J.M., Ponce, M.R., Micol, J.L. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Two putative BIN2 substrates are nuclear components of brassinosteroid signaling. Zhao, J., Peng, P., Schmitz, R.J., Decker, A.D., Tax, F.E., Li, J. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. BIN2, a new brassinosteroid-insensitive locus in Arabidopsis. Li, J., Nam, K.H., Vafeados, D., Chory, J. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of three novel members of the Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related protein kinase (ASK) multigene family. Dornelas, M.C., Wittich, P., von Recklinghausen, I., van Lammeren, A., Kreis, M. Plant Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional analysis of the BIN 2 genes of cotton. Sun, Y., Allen, R.D. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The UCU1 Arabidopsis gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase required for cell expansion along the proximodistal axis. Pérez-Pérez, J.M., Ponce, M.R., Micol, J.L. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. BIN2 functions redundantly with other Arabidopsis GSK3-like kinases to regulate brassinosteroid signaling. Yan, Z., Zhao, J., Peng, P., Chihara, R.K., Li, J. Plant Physiol. (2009) [Pubmed]
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