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Gene Review

TWD1  -  putative peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans...

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on TWD1

  • Employing an IAA-specific microelectrode demonstrated that IAA influx in the root elongation zone was perturbed and apically shifted in pgp1/pgp19 and twd1 roots [1].
  • Constitutive overexpression of PGP1 and PGP19, but not TWD1, enhanced auxin export [1].
  • Unlike AtPGP1, AtMRP1 binds to the C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TWD1, which is well known to mediate protein-protein interactions [2].
  • We demonstrate molecular interaction between TWD1 and ABC transporters AtMRP1 and its closest homologue, AtMRP2 [2].
  • To further understand the dramatic pleiotropic phenotype that is caused by loss-of-function mutation of the TWD1 gene, we were interested in other TWD1 interacting proteins [2].

Biological context of TWD1

  • Physiological and double mutant analyses suggest that UCU2 is required for growth and development and participates in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling [3].
  • Here, we describe four recessive alleles of the UCU2 gene, whose homozygotes display helical rotation of several organs in addition to other phenotypic traits shared with ucu1 mutants [3].
  • Following a map-based strategy, we identified the UCU2 gene, which was found to encode a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase of the FK506-binding protein family, whose homologs in metazoans are involved in cell signaling and protein trafficking [3].
  • FKBP42 is a membrane-anchored immunophilin playing a critical role in morphogenesis and development of higher plants [4].
  • Profound redox-dependence of PPIase activity implies oxidative activation of protein folding catalysis under oxidative stress and photosynthetic oxygen production in the thylakoid lumen of plant chloroplasts [5].

Anatomical context of TWD1

  • We were able to demonstrate that TWD1 binds to isolated vacuoles and has a significant impact on the uptake of metolachlor-GS and estradiol-beta-glucuronide, well-known substrates of vacuolar transporters AtMRP1 and AtMRP2 [2].
  • Unlike all other FKBPs, TWD1 is shown to be an integral membrane protein that colocalizes with its interacting partner AtPGP1 on the plasma membrane [6].
  • While FKBP52 is found in the cytosol and translocates to the nucleus, AtFKBP42 was predicted to be membrane-localized, as shown by electron microscopy [7].
  • These two enzymes are responsible for PPIase activity in both soluble and membrane-associated fractions of thylakoid lumen suggesting that other lumenal immunophilins are not active towards the peptide substrates [5].

Associations of TWD1 with chemical compounds

  • The TWD1 gene encodes a 42 kDa FK506-binding protein (AtFKBP42) that possesses similarity to multidomain PPIases such as mammalian FKBP51 and FKBP52, which are known to be components of mammalian steroid hormone receptor complexes [7].

Physical interactions of TWD1

  • Mapping of protein interaction domains shows that AtPGP1 surprisingly binds to the N-terminus of TWD1 harboring the cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase-like domain and not to the tetratrico-peptide repeat domain, which has been shown to mediate protein-protein interaction [6].

Other interactions of TWD1

  • Coexpression of TWD1 and PGP1 in yeast and mammalian cells verified the specificity of the regulatory effect [1].
  • By membrane fractionation and GFP-tagging, we localized AtMRP1 to the central vacuolar membrane and the TWD1-AtMRP1 complex was verified in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation [2].
  • Null-mutations of the Arabidopsis FKBP-like immunophilin TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1) gene cause a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by reduction of cell elongation and disorientated growth of all plant organs [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TWD1


  1. Immunophilin-like TWISTED DWARF1 Modulates Auxin Efflux Activities of Arabidopsis P-glycoproteins. Bouchard, R., Bailly, A., Blakeslee, J.J., Oehring, S.C., Vincenzetti, V., Lee, O.R., Paponov, I., Palme, K., Mancuso, S., Murphy, A.S., Schulz, B., Geisler, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Arabidopsis immunophilin-like TWD1 functionally interacts with vacuolar ABC transporters. Geisler, M., Girin, M., Brandt, S., Vincenzetti, V., Plaza, S., Paris, N., Kobae, Y., Maeshima, M., Billion, K., Kolukisaoglu, U.H., Schulz, B., Martinoia, E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling. Pérez-Pérez, J.M., Ponce, M.R., Micol, J.L. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Crystal Structure of a Multi-domain Immunophilin from Arabidopsis thaliana: A Paradigm for Regulation of Plant ABC Transporters. Granzin, J., Eckhoff, A., Weiergr??ber, O.H. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Profound redox sensitivity of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in Arabidopsis thylakoid lumen. Shapiguzov, A., Edvardsson, A., Vener, A.V. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. TWISTED DWARF1, a unique plasma membrane-anchored immunophilin-like protein, interacts with Arabidopsis multidrug resistance-like transporters AtPGP1 and AtPGP19. Geisler, M., Kolukisaoglu, H.U., Bouchard, R., Billion, K., Berger, J., Saal, B., Frangne, N., Koncz-Kalman, Z., Koncz, C., Dudler, R., Blakeslee, J.J., Murphy, A.S., Martinoia, E., Schulz, B. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana AtFKBP42 that is membrane-bound and interacts with Hsp90. Kamphausen, T., Fanghänel, J., Neumann, D., Schulz, B., Rahfeld, J.U. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of immunophilin-like FKBP42 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Eckhoff, A., Granzin, J., Kamphausen, T., Büldt, G., Schulz, B., Weiergräber, O.H. Acta Crystallograph. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
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