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Gene Review

SUR2  -  sphingosine hydroxylase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: D9740.8, SYR2, Sphingolipid C4-hydroxylase SUR2, Syringomycin response protein 2, YDR297W
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High impact information on SUR2

  • The TRAP100-deficient TRAP/Mediator complex also lacks TRAP95 and TRAP150 beta/SUR2, which together with TRAP100 may form a submodule, and contains a reduced amount of SRB10/CDK8 [1].
  • Gene dosage experiments using the sphingolipid long chain sphingoid base (LCB) hydroxylase gene, SUR2, suggest that erg26-1 cells may accumulate LCB, thus placing one point of sterol regulation of sphingolipid synthesis possibly at the level of ceramide metabolism [2].
  • These results show that the SYR2 gene is required for the 4-hydroxylation reaction of sphingolipid long chain bases, that this hydroxylation is not essential for growth, and that the 4-hydroxyl group of sphingolipids is necessary for syringomycin E action on yeast [3].
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SYR2, necessary for growth inhibition by the cyclic lipodepsipeptide syringomycin E, is shown to be required for 4-hydroxylation of long chain bases in sphingolipid biosynthesis [3].
  • Mutants defective in both YSR2 and SUR2, which accumulated dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate only, grew poorly [4].

Biological context of SUR2


Anatomical context of SUR2


Associations of SUR2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of SUR2

  • Ten mutants were obtained, ranged amongst four complementation groups, named SUR1, SUR2, SUR3 and SUR4 [9].
  • Two other genes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis (LCB2 and SUR2) were found to contain PDREs in their promoters and to be induced by the Pdr pathway [10].
  • Both predicted proteins consist of 258 amino acid residues (77% identity) which show sequence similarity to di-iron-binding enzymes, such as Sur2p and Erg3p from yeast, involved in oxygen-dependent lipid modifications [11].


  1. The TRAP100 component of the TRAP/Mediator complex is essential in broad transcriptional events and development. Ito, M., Okano, H.J., Darnell, R.B., Roeder, R.G. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Sterol-dependent regulation of sphingolipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Swain, E., Baudry, K., Stukey, J., McDonough, V., Germann, M., Nickels, J.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Syringomycin action gene SYR2 is essential for sphingolipid 4-hydroxylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grilley, M.M., Stock, S.D., Dickson, R.C., Lester, R.L., Takemoto, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Accumulation of phosphorylated sphingoid long chain bases results in cell growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kim, S., Fyrst, H., Saba, J. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Hydroxylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ceramides requires Sur2p and Scs7p. Haak, D., Gable, K., Beeler, T., Dunn, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning and functional characterization of the SUR2/SYR2 gene encoding sphinganine hydroxylase in Pichia ciferrii. Bae, J.H., Sohn, J.H., Park, C.S., Rhee, J.S., Choi, E.S. Yeast (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. SYR2, a gene necessary for syringomycin growth inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cliften, P., Wang, Y., Mochizuki, D., Miyakawa, T., Wangspa, R., Hughes, J., Takemoto, J.Y. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure-function studies of yeast C-4 sphingolipid long chain base hydroxylase. Idkowiak-Baldys, J., Takemoto, J.Y., Grilley, M.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Yeast mutants affected in viability upon starvation have a modified phospholipid composition. Desfarges, L., Durrens, P., Juguelin, H., Cassagne, C., Bonneu, M., Aigle, M. Yeast (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential regulation of ceramide synthase components LAC1 and LAG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kolaczkowski, M., Kolaczkowska, A., Gaigg, B., Schneiter, R., Moye-Rowley, W.S. Eukaryotic Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Functional characterization of sphingolipid C4-hydroxylase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Sperling, P., Ternes, P., Moll, H., Franke, S., Zähringer, U., Heinz, E. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
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