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Gene Review

DAL5  -  allantoate permease

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Allantoate permease, J2230, UREP1, YJR152W
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High impact information on DAL5

  • The inactivity of Ure2p, caused by either a ure2 mutation or the presence of the [URE3] prion, increases DAL5 transcription and thus enables Saccharomyces cerevisiae to take up ureidosuccinate (USA+) [1].
  • DAL5 is a constitutively expressed allantoin system gene whose product is required for allantoate transport [2].
  • These observations are consistent with the suggestion that DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-GATAA-3' play an important role in DAL5 gene expression, probably representing a portion of the binding site for a transcriptional activation factor [2].
  • Analysis of these two regions with synthetic oligonucleotides localized the sequences supporting transcriptional activation to two DNA fragments of 10 to 12 base pairs, each containing one copy of the pentanucleotide 5'-GATAA-3'. The 5'-flanking region of DAL5 contained eight copies of this sequence [2].
  • To investigate the connections between these two signaling pathways, we have analyzed rapamycin sensitivity of the expression of the RTG target gene CIT2 and of two NCR-sensitive genes, GLN1 and DAL5, in respiratory-competent (rho+) and -incompetent (rho0) yeast cells [3].

Biological context of DAL5

  • A point mutation in the Gln3p activation region destroys its in vivo ability to support NCR-sensitive DAL5 expression [4].
  • We have developed a novel reporter, in which the ADE2 gene is controlled by the DAL5 regulatory region, which allows monitoring of Ure2p function by a colony color phenotype [5].
  • Three of nine UASNTR-like sequences 5' of the DAL5 gene supported high-level transcriptional activation [6].
  • Recent data raised the possibility that DAL5 might also be regulated by the retrograde system responsible for control of early TCA cycle gene expression, prompting us to investigate the structure of the DAL5 promoter in more detail [7].
  • These control characteristics of DAL5 expression make this gene a good model with which to unravel the mechanism of nitrogen catabolite repression [8].

Associations of DAL5 with chemical compounds

  • Most of the work leading to the above conclusions has employed inducer-independent allantoin pathway genes (e.g. DAL5 and DAL3) [9].
  • Dal5p, the allantoate permease, allows ureidosuccinate uptake (Usa(+)) when cells grow on a poor nitrogen source such as proline [10].
  • We also found that decreased DAL5 expression in glutamate-grown cells, a characteristic shared with retrograde regulation, likely derives from decreased nuclear Gln3 levels that occur under these growth conditions rather than direct retrograde system control [7].
  • Mutants (dal5) that lack allantoate transport have been isolated [11].
  • We have studied the transcript levels of YGR260w and YLR004c, two genes encoding members of the yeast Dal5p subfamily of the major facilitator family, and we show that they increase when extracellular nicotinic acid and thiamine, respectively, are absent [12].

Other interactions of DAL5

  • We find that overproduction of Mks1p allows uptake of ureidosuccinate on ammonia and lack of Mks1p prevents uptake of ureidosuccinate or Dal5p expression on proline [10].
  • We interpret the pleiotropic behavior of the dal4 and dal5 mutations as deriving from a functional interaction between elements of the two transport systems [11].
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae allantoate/ureidosuccinate permease gene (DAL5) is often used as a reporter in studies of the Tor1/2 protein kinases which are specifically inhibited by the clinically important immunosuppressant and anti-neoplastic drug, rapamycin [7].
  • Transcriptional regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL5 gene family and identification of the high affinity nicotinic acid permease TNA1 (YGR260w) [12].
  • We have examined the binding affinity of the NIT2 protein for the yeast DAL5 wild-type upstream activation sequence UASNTR, which contains two GATA elements, and for a series of mutated binding sites, each differing from the wild-type site by a single base [13].


  1. A novel Rtg2p activity regulates nitrogen catabolism in yeast. Pierce, M.M., Maddelein, M.L., Roberts, B.T., Wickner, R.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of sequences responsible for transcriptional activation of the allantoate permease gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rai, R., Genbauffe, F.S., Sumrada, R.A., Cooper, T.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Retrograde response to mitochondrial dysfunction is separable from TOR1/2 regulation of retrograde gene expression. Giannattasio, S., Liu, Z., Thornton, J., Butow, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The minimal transactivation region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gln3p is localized to 13 amino acids. Svetlov, V., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of distinct [URE3] yeast prion strains. Schlumpberger, M., Prusiner, S.B., Herskowitz, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Saturation mutagenesis of the UASNTR (GATAA) responsible for nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive transcriptional activation of the allantoin pathway genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bysani, N., Daugherty, J.R., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Synergistic operation of four cis-acting elements mediate high level DAL5 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rai, R., Daugherty, J.R., Tate, J.J., Buford, T.D., Cooper, T.G. FEMS Yeast Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcriptional regulation of the DAL5 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rai, R., Genbauffe, F., Lea, H.Z., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Overlapping positive and negative GATA factor binding sites mediate inducible DAL7 gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rai, R., Daugherty, J.R., Cunningham, T.S., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Mks1p is a regulator of nitrogen catabolism upstream of Ure2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Edskes, H.K., Hanover, J.A., Wickner, R.B. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of allantoate transport in wild-type and mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chisholm, V.T., Lea, H.Z., Rai, R., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL5 gene family and identification of the high affinity nicotinic acid permease TNA1 (YGR260w). Llorente, B., Dujon, B. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA binding site specificity of the Neurospora global nitrogen regulatory protein NIT2: analysis with mutated binding sites. Chiang, T.Y., Rai, R., Cooper, T.G., Marzluf, G.A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
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