The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

GLN1  -  glutamate--ammonia ligase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: GS, Glutamate--ammonia ligase, Glutamine synthetase, YP3085.01, YP9367.15, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of GLN1


High impact information on GLN1


Chemical compound and disease context of GLN1


Biological context of GLN1


Associations of GLN1 with chemical compounds

  • Expression of GLN1 and GDH2 exhibited parallel responses to the provision of asparagine and glutamine as nitrogen sources but did not follow the regulatory responses noted above for the nitrogen catabolic genes such as DAL5 [13].
  • Glutamine limitation of gln1 structural mutants has the opposite effect, causing elevated levels of NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase even in the presence of ammonia [7].
  • No specific regulatory element has been identified, but depression of glutamine synthetase is observed during purine starvation in gln3 gcn4 double mutants [14].
  • This system mediates derepression of glutamine synthetase in response to pyrimidine limitation as well, but genetic evidence argues that this is an indirect effect of depletion of the glutamine pool [14].
  • Yeast glutamine synthetase can be irreversibly inactivated in the presence of L-methionine sulfoximine, ATP, and a divalent cation Mn2+ or Mg2+ [15].

Other interactions of GLN1

  • Here we report the isolation of a new yeast mutant, gan1-1, exhibiting dramatically decreased NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities [16].
  • Surprisingly, no changes were observed in the transcription of GDH1 and GLN1; however increased D was accompanied by an increase in GAP1 transcription [17].
  • The maximum specific growth rate of strain TN19 was slightly lower than the wild-type value, but earlier results suggest that this can be circumvented by increasing the specific activities of Gln1p and Glt1p even more [18].
  • Four polypeptides, in addition to the glutamine synthetase subunit are synthesized at elevated rates when GLN3+ cultures are shifted from glutamine to glutamate media as determined by pulse-labeling and one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis [7].
  • Here, we have cloned and characterized Hebeloma cylindrosporum AMT1, GLNA and GDHA genes, which encode a third ammonium transporter, a glutamine synthetase and an NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase respectively [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLN1

  • Pulse-labeling and immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that all three systems control glutamine synthetase at the level of subunit synthesis [14].
  • The molecular mass was estimated to be 660 kDa by gel filtration and 55 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting that Ps. taetrolens Y-30 GS consists of 12 identical subunits [2].


  1. Molecular characterization of the glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Kersten, M.A., Müller, Y., Op den Camp, H.J., Vogels, G.D., Van Griensven, L.J., Visser, J., Schaap, P.J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Purification and characterization of glutamine synthetase of Pseudomonas taetrolens Y-30: an enzyme usable for production of theanine by coupling with the alcoholic fermentation system of baker's yeast. Yamamoto, S., Uchimura, K., Wakayama, M., Tachiki, T. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The TOR-controlled transcription activators GLN3, RTG1, and RTG3 are regulated in response to intracellular levels of glutamine. Crespo, J.L., Powers, T., Fowler, B., Hall, M.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequence and expression of GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger DNA-binding domain. Minehart, P.L., Magasanik, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. The URE2 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an important role in the cellular response to the nitrogen source and has homology to glutathione s-transferases. Coschigano, P.W., Magasanik, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of the complex upstream region of the GDH2 gene in nitrogen regulation of the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Miller, S.M., Magasanik, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of glutamine-repressible gene products by the GLN3 function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mitchell, A.P., Magasanik, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Theanine production by coupled fermentation with energy transfer employing Pseudomonas taetrolens Y-30 glutamine synthetase and baker's yeast cells. Yamamoto, S., Wakayama, M., Tachiki, T. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The GLN1 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes glutamine synthetase. Mitchell, A.P. Genetics (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Methionine sulfoximine treatment and carbon starvation elicit Snf1-independent phosphorylation of the transcription activator Gln3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tate, J.J., Rai, R., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequence of peptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamine synthetase. N-terminal peptide and ATP-binding domain. Kim, K.H., Rhee, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that confer L-methionine sulfoximine and tabtoxin resistance. Marek, E.T., Dickson, R.C. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulatory circuit for responses of nitrogen catabolic gene expression to the GLN3 and DAL80 proteins and nitrogen catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Daugherty, J.R., Rai, R., el Berry, H.M., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Three regulatory systems control production of glutamine synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mitchell, A.P., Magasanik, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Subunit interaction elicited by partial inactivation with L-methionine sulfoximine and ATP differently affects the biosynthetic and gamma-glutamyltransferase reactions catalyzed by yeast glutamine synthetase. Kim, K.H., Rhee, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. A co-activator of nitrogen-regulated transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Soussi-Boudekou, S., André, B. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Nitrogen-regulated transcription and enzyme activities in continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ter Schure, E.G., Silljé, H.H., Raeven, L.J., Boonstra, J., Verkleij, A.J., Verrips, C.T. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Optimization of ethanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering of the ammonium assimilation. Nissen, T.L., Kielland-Brandt, M.C., Nielsen, J., Villadsen, J. Metab. Eng. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular characterization, function and regulation of ammonium transporters (Amt) and ammonium-metabolizing enzymes (GS, NADP-GDH) in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum. Javelle, A., Morel, M., Rodríguez-Pastrana, B.R., Botton, B., André, B., Marini, A.M., Brun, A., Chalot, M. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities