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Chemical Compound Review

nicotinate     pyridine-3-carboxylate

Synonyms: nicotinat, vitamin B3, nico-400-, CHEMBL2074803, CHEBI:32544, ...
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Disease relevance of nicotinic acid


Psychiatry related information on nicotinic acid

  • The dyslipidaemic profile of diabetes greatly contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the disorder, and evidence from many intervention trials using statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid or a nicotinic acid-statin combination, indicates the substantial cardiovascular risk reduction to be gained from lipid modification [5].
  • Niacin should be avoided in patients with hepatic dysfunction or a history of liver disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients who abuse alcohol [6].
  • In the present study, niacin-induced vasodilation was estimated quantitatively in schizophrenic and comparison bipolar affective disorder and healthy subjects using thermocouple sensors to measure the change in skin temperature relative to core body and ambient room temperature [7].
  • Twelve (42.9%) of 28 schizophrenic subjects did not vasodilate in response to a 200-mg niacin challenge dose, whereas only 1 of 18 (6%) bipolar disorder subjects and none of 28 controls showed impaired response (Fisher's Exact Test, p < .0001) [7].
  • These have advantages over cholestyramine and nicotinic acid in terms of better patient compliance [8].

High impact information on nicotinic acid

  • For the bile acid sequestrants, niacin, and gemfibrozil, the risks of discontinuation were substantially higher in the HMOs than in randomized clinical trials, in which the summary estimates of this risk were 31 percent, 4 percent, and 15 percent, respectively, for trials of one year or longer [9].
  • Binding of nicotinic acid to PUMA-G or HM74 results in a G(i)-mediated decrease in cAMP levels [10].
  • A G-protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid has been proposed in adipocytes [10].
  • This anti-lipolytic effect of nicotinic acid involves the inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in adipose tissue through a G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase [10].
  • In mice lacking PUMA-G, the nicotinic acid-induced decrease in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride plasma levels was abrogated, indicating that PUMA-G mediates the anti-lipolytic and lipid-lowering effects of nicotinic acid in vivo [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of nicotinic acid


Biological context of nicotinic acid


Anatomical context of nicotinic acid


Associations of nicotinic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of nicotinic acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nicotinic acid


  1. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. Brown, B.G., Zhao, X.Q., Chait, A., Fisher, L.D., Cheung, M.C., Morse, J.S., Dowdy, A.A., Marino, E.K., Bolson, E.L., Alaupovic, P., Frohlich, J., Albers, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Niacin Reduces Paraquat Toxicity in Rats. Brown, O.R., Heitkamp, M., Song, C.S. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Nicotinic acid as therapy for dyslipidemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Garg, A., Grundy, S.M. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. McKenney, J.M., Proctor, J.D., Harris, S., Chinchili, V.M. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. What is the most effective strategy for managing diabetic dyslipidaemia? Reasner, C.A. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficacy and safety of controlled-release niacin in dyslipoproteinemic veterans. Gray, D.R., Morgan, T., Chretien, S.D., Kashyap, M.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The niacin challenge test: clinical manifestation of altered transmembrane signal transduction in schizophrenia? Hudson, C.J., Lin, A., Cogan, S., Cashman, F., Warsh, J.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The future of pharmacological therapy for risk factor reduction. Hyperlipidaemia. Olsson, A.G., Mölgaard, J. Drugs (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Discontinuation of antihyperlipidemic drugs--do rates reported in clinical trials reflect rates in primary care settings? Andrade, S.E., Walker, A.M., Gottlieb, L.K., Hollenberg, N.K., Testa, M.A., Saperia, G.M., Platt, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect. Tunaru, S., Kero, J., Schaub, A., Wufka, C., Blaukat, A., Pfeffer, K., Offermanns, S. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of the antilipolytic nicotinic acid analogue acipimox on whole-body and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Vaag, A., Skött, P., Damsbo, P., Gall, M.A., Richter, E.A., Beck-Nielsen, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Studies of tryptophan and albumin metabolism in a patient with carcinoid syndrome, pellagra, and hypoproteinemia. Swain, C.P., Tavill, A.S., Neale, G. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Lovastatin, nicotinic acid, and rhabdomyolysis. Reaven, P., Witztum, J.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Complementarity of colestipol, niacin, and lovastatin in treatment of severe familial hypercholesterolemia. Malloy, M.J., Kane, J.P., Kunitake, S.T., Tun, P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Na(+)/monocarboxylate transport (SMCT) protein expression correlates with survival in colon cancer: molecular characterization of SMCT. Paroder, V., Spencer, S.R., Paroder, M., Arango, D., Schwartz, S., Mariadason, J.M., Augenlicht, L.H., Eskandari, S., Carrasco, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Nicotinic acid reduction of plasma volume loss after thermal trauma. Hilton, J.G., Wells, C.H. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Nicotinic acid and skin temperature. Livingstone, S.D., Kuehn, L.A. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Letter: Nicotinic acid and myocardial action potential. Beresewicz, A., Wojtczak, J. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacoepidemiology of niacin. Jungnickel, P.W., Maloley, P.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. GPR109A (PUMA-G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing. Benyó, Z., Gille, A., Kero, J., Csiky, M., Suchánková, M.C., Nüsing, R.M., Moers, A., Pfeffer, K., Offermanns, S. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Prevention and reversal of cholera enterotoxin effects in rabbit jejunum by nicotinic acid. Turjman, N., Gotterer, G.S., Hendrix, T.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Reduction of fluid-loss in cholera by nicotinic acid: a randomised controlled trial. Rabbani, G.H., Butler, T., Bardhan, P.K., Islam, A. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Tandem bromodomains in the chromatin remodeler RSC recognize acetylated histone H3 Lys14. Kasten, M., Szerlong, H., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Werner, M., Cairns, B.R. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Progression of coronary artery disease predicts clinical coronary events. Long-term follow-up from the Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study. Azen, S.P., Mack, W.J., Cashin-Hemphill, L., LaBree, L., Shircore, A.M., Selzer, R.H., Blankenhorn, D.H., Hodis, H.N. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: A randomized trial. Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial. Elam, M.B., Hunninghake, D.B., Davis, K.B., Garg, R., Johnson, C., Egan, D., Kostis, J.B., Sheps, D.S., Brinton, E.A. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Acceleration of the adipocyte adenylate cyclase turn-off reaction by inhibitory hormonal factors. Jakobs, K.H., Aktories, K., Shultz, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. A forecast of pharmaceutical approaches. Gotto, A.M. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Normalization of plasma lipoprotein concentrations in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinemia by combined use of neomycin and niacin. Hoeg, J.M., Maher, M.B., Bou, E., Zech, L.A., Bailey, K.R., Gregg, R.E., Sprecher, D.L., Susser, J.K., Pikus, A.M., Brewer, H.B. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Nicotinamide clearance by Pnc1 directly regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity. Gallo, C.M., Smith, D.L., Smith, J.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of determinants of ligand binding to the nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A (HM74A/PUMA-G). Tunaru, S., Lättig, J., Kero, J., Krause, G., Offermanns, S. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of nicotinic acid therapy on plasma lipoproteins and very low density lipoprotein apoprotein C subspecies in hyperlipoproteinemia. Yovos, J.G., Patel, S.T., Falko, J.M., Newman, H.A., Hill, D.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance on pancreatic B cell function in normal and streptozocin-treated baboons. McCulloch, D.K., Kahn, S.E., Schwartz, M.W., Koerker, D.J., Palmer, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Kava-induced dermopathy: a niacin deficiency? Ruze, P. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Identification of the prosthetic group of urocanase. The mode of its reaction with sodium borohydride and of its photochemical reactivation. Keul, V., Kaeppeli, F., Ghosh, C., Krebs, T., Robinson, J.A., Rétey, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  35. Therapy for lowering lipoprotein (a) levels. Angelin, B. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxygen, CO, and azide binding by the subcomponents of soybean leghemoglobin. Martin, K.D., Saari, L., Wang, G.X., Wang, T., Parkhurst, L.J., Klucas, R.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
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