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Gene Review

TRA1  -  Tra1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Transcription-associated protein 1, YHR099W, p400 kDa component of SAGA
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Disease relevance of TRA1

  • Adenovirus E1A requires the yeast SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex and associates with SAGA components Gcn5 and Tra1 [1].

High impact information on TRA1

  • TRRAP and its yeast homolog (Tra1p) are components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, SAGA (refs. 2,4,5), PCAF (ref. 3) and NuA4 (ref. 6), which are important for the regulation of transcription and cell cycle progression and also have a role in cell viability [2].
  • Mutations within the COOH-terminus of Tra1p disrupted its interaction with activators and resulted in gene-specific transcriptional defects that correlated with lowered promoter-specific histone acetylation [3].
  • We propose that these mutations render tra-2 insensitive to a negative regulator in the XX germ line, and we speculate that this regulator targets the TRA-2/TRA-1 complex [4].
  • Thus, while Tra1p can bind directly to Gcn4p in vitro, it requires other SAGA subunits for efficient recruitment in vivo [5].
  • The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex contains several subunits which also function as part of other protein complexes, including a subset of TATA box binding protein-associated factors (TAFIIs) and Tra1 [6].

Biological context of TRA1

  • TRA1 is an essential gene and encodes a 3744-amino acid protein that is a member of a group of proteins including the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase, ATM and TRRAP, with carboxyl-terminal regions related to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases [7].
  • We also show a suppression of the Ts phenotype of a mcm5 strain by the high copy expression of the TRA1 component of the chromatin-remodeling SAGA/ADA (SPT-ADA-GCN5 acetylase/ADAptor) [8].
  • Transfer of the shuttle plasmid required carriage of oriT in cis and the provision in trans of the Palpha Tra1 core and Tra2 core regions [9].

Other interactions of TRA1

  • Additionally, Gcn5 protein could associate with E1A in vitro in a manner that depended on the N-terminal domain of E1A, and Tra1 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with E1A in vivo [1].
  • In the absence of Ada2p, the elution profile of Tra1p shifted to a distinct peak [7].
  • We have identified Tra1p as a component of these complexes through tandem mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that associate with Ngg1p/Ada3p [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TRA1

  • We demonstrate by affinity chromatography and photo-cross-linking label transfer that acidic activators directly interact with Tra1p, a shared subunit of SAGA and NuA4 [3].


  1. Adenovirus E1A requires the yeast SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex and associates with SAGA components Gcn5 and Tra1. Kulesza, C.A., Van Buskirk, H.A., Cole, M.D., Reese, J.C., Smith, M.M., Engel, D.A. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Disruption of Trrap causes early embryonic lethality and defects in cell cycle progression. Herceg, Z., Hulla, W., Gell, D., Cuenin, C., Lleonart, M., Jackson, S., Wang, Z.Q. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Recruitment of HAT complexes by direct activator interactions with the ATM-related Tra1 subunit. Brown, C.E., Howe, L., Sousa, K., Alley, S.C., Carrozza, M.J., Tan, S., Workman, J.L. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Direct protein-protein interaction between the intracellular domain of TRA-2 and the transcription factor TRA-1A modulates feminizing activity in C. elegans. Lum, D.H., Kuwabara, P.E., Zarkower, D., Spence, A.M. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Interdependent recruitment of SAGA and Srb mediator by transcriptional activator Gcn4p. Qiu, H., Hu, C., Zhang, F., Hwang, G.J., Swanson, M.J., Boonchird, C., Hinnebusch, A.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The ADA complex is a distinct histone acetyltransferase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eberharter, A., Sterner, D.E., Schieltz, D., Hassan, A., Yates, J.R., Berger, S.L., Workman, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Tra1p is a component of the yeast Ada.Spt transcriptional regulatory complexes. Saleh, A., Schieltz, D., Ting, N., McMahon, S.B., Litchfield, D.W., Yates, J.R., Lees-Miller, S.P., Cole, M.D., Brandl, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence for a role of MCM (mini-chromosome maintenance)5 in transcriptional repression of sub-telomeric and Ty-proximal genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dziak, R., Leishman, D., Radovic, M., Tye, B.K., Yankulov, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. IncP plasmids are unusually effective in mediating conjugation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: involvement of the tra2 mating system. Bates, S., Cashmore, A.M., Wilkins, B.M. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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