The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

SPT15  -  TATA-binding protein

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: BTF1, TATA sequence-binding protein, TATA-binding factor, TATA-box factor, TATA-box-binding protein, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of SPT15

  • Third, not mutations suppressed toxicity due to overexpression of TBP in mot1-1 mutants [1].
  • ADI activity at the adenovirus major late promoter requires a segment of DNA upstream from the TATA sequence, suggesting that ADI recognizes aspects of both TBP and DNA [2].
  • Recombinant TBP purified from Escherichia coli is phosphorylated efficiently by CKII and, in the presence of a limiting amount of CKII, is able to substantially rescue transcription in CKII-deficient extract [3].
  • We report here that the hepatitis B virus protein X (pX) specifically binds to TBP in vitro [4].
  • Visualization of TBP oligomers binding and bending the HIV-1 and adeno promoters [5].

High impact information on SPT15

  • CK2 associates with and normally activates the TATA binding protein (TBP) subunit of TFIIIB [6].
  • Using a yeast heat shock gene flanked by mating-type silencers as a model system, we find that repressive, SIR-generated heterochromatin is permissive to the constitutive binding of an activator, HSF, and two components of the preinitiation complex (PIC), TBP and Pol II [7].
  • The heterochromatic HMRa1 promoter is also occupied by TBP and Pol II, suggesting that SIR regulates gene expression not by restricting factor access to DNA but rather by blocking a step downstream of PIC recruitment [7].
  • Transcriptional repression induced by DNA damage requires CK2 and coincides with downregulation of TBP-associated CK2 and dissociation of catalytic subunits from TBP-CK2 complexes [6].
  • Solution structure of a TBP-TAF(II)230 complex: protein mimicry of the minor groove surface of the TATA box unwound by TBP [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of SPT15

  • In this article are described equilibrium-binding studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TBP to 14 bp oligonucleotides bearing either the tightly bound and efficiently transcribed adenovirus major late promoter (TATAAAAG) or its inosine-substituted derivative (TITIIIIG) as a function of neutral osmolyte concentration [9].
  • Yeast Sec18p and mammalian N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein, which are involved in intracellular transport, yeast Pas1p, which is essential for peroxisome assembly, and mammalian TBP-1, which influences HIV gene expression, are 40% identical in the duplicated region [10].

Biological context of SPT15

  • Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SPT15, which encodes the TATA-binding protein TFIID, have been shown to cause pleiotropic phenotypes and to lead to changes in transcription in vivo [11].
  • Genetic tests of the role of Abf1p in driving transcription of the yeast TATA box bindng protein-encoding gene, SPT15 [12].
  • A homeologous gene pair consisting of S. cerevisiae SPT15 and its S. pombe homolog were present as a direct repeat on chromosome V, with the exogenous S. pombe sequences inserted either upstream or downstream of the endogenous S. cerevisiae gene [13].
  • We present physical and genetic mapping data here showing that the MAG1 gene is located on chromosome V-R, proximal to and about 10 kilobase pairs away from the SPT15 gene coding for the yeast TATA-binding protein TFIID [14].
  • The gene encoding Renilla luciferase is fused to a constitutive promoter (PGK1 or SPT15) and integrated into the yeast genome at the CAN1 locus as a control for normalizing the assay [15].

Anatomical context of SPT15

  • A yeast activity can substitute for the HeLa cell TATA box factor [16].
  • A complex of Kap114p and TBP was detected in the cytosol and could be reconstituted using recombinant proteins, suggesting that the interaction was direct [17].
  • Using mutant TBPs with altered DNA binding specificity, similar to those described previously in yeast, we show that two Arabidopsis TBP isoforms are equally active with both pol II and pol III U-snRNA genes and with an mRNA gene transfected into plant protoplasts [18].
  • TBP self-association may regulate many of its cellular functions, including transit of the nuclear membrane and participation in transcription initiation [19].
  • Gene activity in a eukaryotic cell is regulated by accessory factors to RNA polymerase II, which include the general transcription factor complex TFIID, composed of TBP and TBP-associated factors (TAFs) [20].

Associations of SPT15 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of SPT15

  • NC2 and Not proteins are general negative regulators which interact with TATA box binding protein (TBP) [25].
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that Rtf1 either directly or indirectly regulates the DNA binding properties of TBP and, consequently, the relative activities of different TATA elements in vivo [26].
  • We found that overexpression of Abf1p in a yeast cell increased transcription of the TBP-encoding gene and that this stimulation depended upon the exact sequence of the Abf1p binding site (ABF1) present in the gene [12].
  • MOT1 encodes an essential ATPase that functions as a general transcriptional regulator in vivo by modulating TATA-binding protein (TBP) DNA-binding activity [27].
  • Although it is well known that the TAF N-terminal domain (TAND) at the amino-terminus of the TAF1 protein binds to TBP and thereby inhibits TBP function in vitro, the physiological role of this domain remains obscure [28].

Regulatory relationships of SPT15

  • Substitution mutations in the small subunit of TFIIA (Toa2) at residue Y69 or W76 significantly impaired the ability of TFIIA to stimulate TBP-promoter binding in vitro [29].
  • Importantly, the synthetic lethality for some of the TBP mutations is suppressed by a multicopy plasmid with SNR6 or by an spt3 mutation [30].
  • Furthermore, TBP mutations that selectively inhibit Pol III transcription in vivo impair interactions between TBP and the BRF carboxy-terminal domain [31].
  • Here we demonstrate that another region located on the C-terminal side of TAND2 (82-139 aa) can also bind to TBP and induce transcriptional activation when tethered to DNA as a GAL4 fusion protein [32].
  • In some cases this spt16 toa2 lethality is suppressed by overexpression of TBP or the Nhp6 architectural transcription factor that is also a component of yFACT [33].

Other interactions of SPT15

  • These results, taken together with previous studies, demonstrate a dependent pathway for the recruitment of TBP to GAL gene promoters consisting of the recruitment of SAGA by Gal4 and the subsequent recruitment of TBP by SAGA [34].
  • Finally, we provide evidence that a specific interaction between Spt3 and TBP in vivo is important for Gal4 transcriptional activation at a step after SAGA recruitment [34].
  • The function of Gcn5 as a histone acetyltransferase within the Ada and SAGA adaptor complexes indicates the importance of histone acetylation during steps in transcription activation mediated by interactions with transcription activators and general transcription factors (i.e., TBP) [35].
  • Previous studies demonstrated that the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase) complex facilitates the binding of TATA-binding protein (TBP) during transcriptional activation of the GAL1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [34].
  • The results point to a promoter-specific Isw1p-dependent mechanism for targeted regulation of basal transcription by displacement of TBP from a promoter [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SPT15


  1. The NOT, SPT3, and MOT1 genes functionally interact to regulate transcription at core promoters. Collart, M.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. An ATP-dependent inhibitor of TBP binding to DNA. Auble, D.T., Hahn, S. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Casein kinase II regulation of yeast TFIIIB is mediated by the TATA-binding protein. Ghavidel, A., Schultz, M.C. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Hepatitis B virus transactivator protein X interacts with the TATA-binding protein. Qadri, I., Maguire, H.F., Siddiqui, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Visualization of TBP oligomers binding and bending the HIV-1 and adeno promoters. Griffith, J.D., Makhov, A., Zawel, L., Reinberg, D. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. TATA binding protein-associated CK2 transduces DNA damage signals to the RNA polymerase III transcriptional machinery. Ghavidel, A., Schultz, M.C. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Silenced chromatin is permissive to activator binding and PIC recruitment. Sekinger, E.A., Gross, D.S. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Solution structure of a TBP-TAF(II)230 complex: protein mimicry of the minor groove surface of the TATA box unwound by TBP. Liu, D., Ishima, R., Tong, K.I., Bagby, S., Kokubo, T., Muhandiram, D.R., Kay, L.E., Nakatani, Y., Ikura, M. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparison of the effect of water release on the interaction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA binding protein (TBP) with "TATA Box" sequences composed of adenosine or inosine. Khrapunov, S., Brenowitz, M. Biophys. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Yeast cell cycle protein CDC48p shows full-length homology to the mammalian protein VCP and is a member of a protein family involved in secretion, peroxisome formation, and gene expression. Fröhlich, K.U., Fries, H.W., Rüdiger, M., Erdmann, R., Botstein, D., Mecke, D. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. SPT3 interacts with TFIID to allow normal transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eisenmann, D.M., Arndt, K.M., Ricupero, S.L., Rooney, J.W., Winston, F. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic tests of the role of Abf1p in driving transcription of the yeast TATA box bindng protein-encoding gene, SPT15. Schroeder, S.C., Weil, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Mismatch correction acts as a barrier to homeologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Selva, E.M., New, L., Crouse, G.F., Lahue, R.S. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. The MAG1* 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase gene is closely linked to the SPT15 TATA-binding TFIID gene on chromosome V-R in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xiao, W., Penugonde, V., Rank, G.H. Yeast (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Dual luciferase assay system for rapid assessment of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. McNabb, D.S., Reed, R., Marciniak, R.A. Eukaryotic Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. A yeast activity can substitute for the HeLa cell TATA box factor. Cavallini, B., Huet, J., Plassat, J.L., Sentenac, A., Egly, J.M., Chambon, P. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Nuclear import of the TATA-binding protein: mediation by the karyopherin Kap114p and a possible mechanism for intranuclear targeting. Pemberton, L.F., Rosenblum, J.S., Blobel, G. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Both Arabidopsis TATA binding protein (TBP) isoforms are functionally identical in RNA polymerase II and III transcription in plant cells: evidence for gene-specific changes in DNA binding specificity of TBP. Heard, D.J., Kiss, T., Filipowicz, W. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Participation of the amino-terminal domain in the self-association of the full-length yeast TATA binding protein. Daugherty, M.A., Brenowitz, M., Fried, M.G. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. A histone fold TAF octamer within the yeast TFIID transcriptional coactivator. Selleck, W., Howley, R., Fang, Q., Podolny, V., Fried, M.G., Buratowski, S., Tan, S. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulated displacement of TBP from the PHO8 promoter in vivo requires Cbf1 and the Isw1 chromatin remodeling complex. Moreau, J.L., Lee, M., Mahachi, N., Vary, J., Mellor, J., Tsukiyama, T., Goding, C.R. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential requirement of SAGA components for recruitment of TATA-box-binding protein to promoters in vivo. Bhaumik, S.R., Green, M.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. A transcriptional activating region with two contrasting modes of protein interaction. Ansari, A.Z., Reece, R.J., Ptashne, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Phosphorylation of TFIIA stimulates TATA binding protein-TATA interaction and contributes to maximal transcription and viability in yeast. Solow, S.P., Lezina, L., Lieberman, P.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Interplay of positive and negative regulators in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Lee, T.I., Wyrick, J.J., Koh, S.S., Jennings, E.G., Gadbois, E.L., Young, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of RTF1, a novel gene important for TATA site selection by TATA box-binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Stolinski, L.A., Eisenmann, D.M., Arndt, K.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Genetic analysis connects SLX5 and SLX8 to the SUMO pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wang, Z., Jones, G.M., Prelich, G. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Mutations in the histone fold domain of the TAF12 gene show synthetic lethality with the TAF1 gene lacking the TAF N-terminal domain (TAND) by different mechanisms from those in the SPT15 gene encoding the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Kobayashi, A., Miyake, T., Kawaichi, M., Kokubo, T. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Association of transcription factor IIA with TATA binding protein is required for transcriptional activation of a subset of promoters and cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ozer, J., Lezina, L.E., Ewing, J., Audi, S., Lieberman, P.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. TATA-binding protein mutants that are lethal in the absence of the Nhp6 high-mobility-group protein. Eriksson, P., Biswas, D., Yu, Y., Stewart, J.M., Stillman, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Conserved functional domains of the RNA polymerase III general transcription factor BRF. Khoo, B., Brophy, B., Jackson, S.P. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of a novel TATA element-binding protein binding region at the N terminus of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAF1 protein. Takahata, S., Ryu, H., Ohtsuki, K., Kasahara, K., Kawaichi, M., Kokubo, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. The yeast FACT complex has a role in transcriptional initiation. Biswas, D., Yu, Y., Prall, M., Formosa, T., Stillman, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. The S. cerevisiae SAGA complex functions in vivo as a coactivator for transcriptional activation by Gal4. Larschan, E., Winston, F. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Yeast Gcn5 functions in two multisubunit complexes to acetylate nucleosomal histones: characterization of an Ada complex and the SAGA (Spt/Ada) complex. Grant, P.A., Duggan, L., Côté, J., Roberts, S.M., Brownell, J.E., Candau, R., Ohba, R., Owen-Hughes, T., Allis, C.D., Winston, F., Berger, S.L., Workman, J.L. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Enhancement of TBP binding by activators and general transcription factors. Li, X.Y., Virbasius, A., Zhu, X., Green, M.R. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. The symmetry of the yeast U6 RNA gene's TATA box and the orientation of the TATA-binding protein in yeast TFIIIB. Whitehall, S.K., Kassavetis, G.A., Geiduschek, E.P. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of activation-defective TBP mutations on transcription initiation in yeast. Kim, T.K., Hashimoto, S., Kelleher, R.J., Flanagan, P.M., Kornberg, R.D., Horikoshi, M., Roeder, R.G. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities