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Gene Review

Rep  -  replication associated protein

Ageratum enation virus

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Disease relevance of Rep

  • Identification of Rep as resembling the family of ribonucleoprotein/RNA-recognition motif fold proteins establishes a structure-based evolutionary link between RNA binding proteins, splicing factors, and replication initiators of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA elements and mammalian DNA tumor viruses [1].
  • The origin of replication of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and a gene expression vector based on Potato virus X were exploited to devise an in planta system for functional analysis of the geminivirus replication-associated protein (Rep) in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana line pOri-2 [2].
  • These results prompt a reassessment of the current model of geminivirus replication where Rep/DNA interaction is a highly specific step in the initiation of rolling circle replication [3].

High impact information on Rep

  • Here we present the solution NMR structure of the catalytic domain of Rep, the initiator protein of tomato yellow leaf curl virus [1].
  • The release of episomal trans replicons from the transgene and the increase in GFP expression were dependent on the cognate geminiviral replication-associated protein (Rep) and required interaction between Rep and the intergenic region of TYLCSV [4].
  • This line contains an integrated copy of a tandem repeat of the ACMV origin of replication flanking nonviral sequences that can be mobilized and replicated by Rep as an episomal replicon [2].
  • We have used a combination of protein-binding assays and mutagenesis to show that repeat motifs in TLCV and sat-DNA are essential for Rep-binding in vitro [3].
  • The DNA binding sites for the replication-associated protein (Rep) of two strains of tomato leaf curl virus from New Delhi (ToLCV-Nde) were identified using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) [5].

Biological context of Rep

  • A Rep-GFP fusion protein can also mobilize and amplify the replicon, facilitating Rep detection in planta [2].


  1. The structure of a replication initiator unites diverse aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. Campos-Olivas, R., Louis, J.M., Clerot, D., Gronenborn, B., Gronenborn, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Novel system for the simultaneous analysis of geminivirus DNA replication and plant interactions in Nicotiana benthamiana. Hong, Y., Stanley, J., van Wezel, R. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. High-affinity Rep-binding is not required for the replication of a geminivirus DNA and its satellite. Lin, B., Akbar Behjatnia, S.A., Dry, I.B., Randles, J.W., Rezaian, M.A. Virology (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. A versatile transreplication-based system to identify cellular proteins involved in geminivirus replication. Morilla, G., Castillo, A.G., Preiss, W., Jeske, H., Bejarano, E.R. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence parameters that determine specificity of binding of the replication-associated protein to its cognate site in two strains of tomato leaf curl virus-New Delhi. Chatterji, A., Chatterji, U., Beachy, R.N., Fauquet, C.M. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
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