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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Geminiviridae

  • By contrast, ADK activity is increased after inoculation of plants with diverse RNA viruses or a geminivirus lacking a functional L2 gene [1].
  • The geminivirus, tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), encodes one protein, AL1, that is absolutely required for viral DNA replication [2].
  • The functional properties of proteins [capsid protein (CP), V1, and C4] potentially involved with movement of the monopartite begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), were investigated using microinjection of Escherichia coli expressed proteins and transient expression of GFP fusion proteins [3].

High impact information on Geminiviridae

  • We report here that the BL1 protein of bean dwarf mosaic geminivirus moves extensively from cell to cell, increases mesophyll plasmodesmal size exclusion limit, and potentiates the movement of double-stranded DNA from cell to cell [4].
  • Geminivirus replication enhancer (REn) proteins dramatically increase the accumulation of viral DNA species by an unknown mechanism [5].
  • Together, these observations suggest that metabolic alterations mediated by SNF1 are an important component of innate antiviral defenses and that the inactivation of ADK and SNF1 by the geminivirus proteins represents a dual strategy to counter this defense [1].
  • To understand how geminiviruses defeat host mechanisms that limit infectivity, we searched for cellular proteins that interact with AL2 and L2 [1].
  • The geminivirus BR1 movement protein binds single-stranded DNA and localizes to the cell nucleus [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Geminiviridae

  • Using the GFP-dsGFP system, we demonstrate here that codelivery of a construct expressing an inverted repeat ADK RNA (dsADK), or addition of an ADK inhibitor (the adenosine analogue A-134974), suppresses GFP-directed silencing in a manner similar to the geminivirus proteins [7].
  • Together, these results suggest that helix 4 and the conserved leucine residue are part of a pRBR-binding interface in begomovirus replication proteins [8].
  • In contrast to the putative C4 proteins of monpartite geminiviruses, TGMV AL4, if it is expressed, is either non-functional, or functionally redundant with an essential TGMV gene product [9].
  • Additionally, some of the early proteins (the AL2 protein of subgroup III, and the RepA (formerly known as C1) or Rep (C1:C2) proteins of subgroup I geminiviruses) can function as transcriptional activators of virion- (V-)sense gene expression [10].
  • Amino acid sequences predicted from three (V2, C1 and C2) of these ORFs showed significant homology with the corresponding ORFs of other geminiviruses infecting monocots [11].

Biological context of Geminiviridae


Anatomical context of Geminiviridae

  • Tomato leaf curl geminivirus (ToLCV) requires coat protein (CP) for the accumulation of ssDNA in protoplasts and in plants but not for systemic infection and symptom development in plants [16].

Gene context of Geminiviridae


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Geminiviridae

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect and establish provisional identity of begomoviruses through amplification of a approximately 575 bp fragment of the begomoviral coat protein gene (CP), referred to as the 'core' region of the CP gene (core CP) [22].


  1. Adenosine kinase is inactivated by geminivirus AL2 and L2 proteins. Wang, H., Hao, L., Shung, C.Y., Sunter, G., Bisaro, D.M. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Interaction between a geminivirus replication protein and origin DNA is essential for viral replication. Fontes, E.P., Eagle, P.A., Sipe, P.S., Luckow, V.A., Hanley-Bowdoin, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional analysis of proteins involved in movement of the monopartite begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus. Rojas, M.R., Jiang, H., Salati, R., Xoconostle-Cázares, B., Sudarshana, M.R., Lucas, W.J., Gilbertson, R.L. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Two proteins of a plant DNA virus coordinate nuclear and plasmodesmal transport. Noueiry, A.O., Lucas, W.J., Gilbertson, R.L. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. A NAC domain protein interacts with tomato leaf curl virus replication accessory protein and enhances viral replication. Selth, L.A., Dogra, S.C., Rasheed, M.S., Healy, H., Randles, J.W., Rezaian, M.A. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The geminivirus BR1 movement protein binds single-stranded DNA and localizes to the cell nucleus. Pascal, E., Sanderfoot, A.A., Ward, B.M., Medville, R., Turgeon, R., Lazarowitz, S.G. Plant Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Adenosine kinase inhibition and suppression of RNA silencing by geminivirus AL2 and L2 proteins. Wang, H., Buckley, K.J., Yang, X., Buchmann, R.C., Bisaro, D.M. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. A novel motif in geminivirus replication proteins interacts with the plant retinoblastoma-related protein. Arguello-Astorga, G., Lopez-Ochoa, L., Kong, L.J., Orozco, B.M., Settlage, S.B., Hanley-Bowdoin, L. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Tomato golden mosaic virus open reading frame AL4 is genetically distinct from its C4 analogue in monopartite geminiviruses. Pooma, W., Petty, I.T. J. Gen. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Prediction of functional regions of the maize streak virus replication-associated proteins by protein-protein interaction analysis. Horváth, G.V., Pettkó-Szandtner, A., Nikovics, K., Bilgin, M., Boulton, M., Davies, J.W., Gutiérrez, C., Dudits, D. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The nucleotide sequence and genome structure of the geminivirus miscanthus streak virus. Chatani, M., Matsumoto, Y., Mizuta, H., Ikegami, M., Boulton, M.I., Davies, J.W. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus has an ATPase activity required for viral DNA replication. Desbiez, C., David, C., Mettouchi, A., Laufs, J., Gronenborn, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential roles of AC2 and AC4 of cassava geminiviruses in mediating synergism and suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Vanitharani, R., Chellappan, P., Pita, J.S., Fauquet, C.M. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. PCNA interacts with Indian mung bean yellow mosaic virus rep and downregulates Rep activity. Bagewadi, B., Chen, S., Lal, S.K., Choudhury, N.R., Mukherjee, S.K. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A symptom variant of beet curly top geminivirus produced by mutation of open reading frame C4. Stanley, J., Latham, J.R. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. A phage single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein complements ssDNA accumulation of a geminivirus and interferes with viral movement. Padidam, M., Beachy, R.N., Fauquet, C.M. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Geminivirus VIGS of endogenous genes requires SGS2/SDE1 and SGS3 and defines a new branch in the genetic pathway for silencing in plants. Muangsan, N., Beclin, C., Vaucheret, H., Robertson, D. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction between a geminivirus replication protein and the plant sumoylation system. Castillo, A.G., Kong, L.J., Hanley-Bowdoin, L., Bejarano, E.R. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Virus and host-specific adaptations in the BL1 and BR1 genes of bipartite geminiviruses. Schaffer, R.L., Miller, C.G., Petty, I.T. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Two domains of the AL1 protein mediate geminivirus origin recognition. Gladfelter, H.J., Eagle, P.A., Fontes, E.P., Batts, L., Hanley-Bowdoin, L. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular characterization of the AL3 protein encoded by a bipartite geminivirus. Pedersen, T.J., Hanley-Bowdoin, L. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. The core region of the coat protein gene is highly useful for establishing the provisional identification and classification of begomoviruses. Brown, J.K., Idris, A.M., Torres-Jerez, I., Banks, G.K., Wyatt, S.D. Arch. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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