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Psychiatry related information on Repression

  • In the elderly subjects with a 5-yr history of high cortisol levels and current memory deficits (n = 9), metyrapone treatment did not have any significant effect on memory performance, but hydrocortisone treatment significantly decreased delayed memory [1].
  • We examined the effects of age, education, and gender on three memory indexes of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, Delayed Memory, Working Memory and the difference between Working-Delayed Memory in a sample of patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, patients with mild probable Alzheimer's disease, and a nondemented elderly comparison group [2].
  • This study is one in a series investigating the relationship between impulsive behavior on a Continuous Performance Test (i.e., the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task) and other cognitive deficits measured by clinical instruments [3].
  • METHODS: First, we compared impulsivity as a stable trait (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS) and as state-dependent behavioral laboratory performance (Immediate Memory-Delayed Memory task, derived from the Continuous Performance Task) in interepisode bipolar and non-bipolar subjects with and without substance abuse [4].

High impact information on Repression

  • METHODS: Impulsivity was assessed using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks (IMT-DMT), derived from the Continuous Performance Test, before and after placebo or two doses of yohimbine, given 4 days apart [5].
  • In MDMA users, delayed memory function was strongly associated with NAA/Cr only in the prefrontal cortex (R(2) =.76, p =.01) [6].
  • The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and a continuous performance test: the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT/DMT) were also collected [7].
  • This delayed impaired modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide may contribute to delayed memory loss and cognitive impairment in humans exposed to carbon monoxide [8].
  • Older adults with epilepsy who were receiving antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy (n=11) displayed worse performance on the attention, initiation/perseveration, and memory subscales of the DRS and Logical Memory delayed recall score compared with those older adults with epilepsy receiving monotherapy (n=14) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Repression

  • Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of PP2, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in rats delayed memory acquisition in the radial arm maze, but PP2-treated animals reached the same level of learning as the controls [10].
  • There were no statistical significant differences between these scores before lithium therapy or after 4 and 12 months, except for immediate and delayed memory on the Person-Data Test and the 30 Face Test which showed an increased score of memory functions [11].
  • A non-arousing test situation abolishes the impairing effects of cortisol on delayed memory retrieval in healthy women [12].
  • These data suggest that in very elderly hypertensive patients, chronic AT1 receptor blockade by losartan could improve cognitive function, in particular immediate and delayed memory [13].
  • An auditory oddball event-related potential task along with self-report (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11) and behavioral laboratory (Immediate and Delayed Memory Task) measures of impulsivity were assessed in healthy controls (n = 14) and subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for current cocaine dependence (n = 17) [14].

Biological context of Repression


Gene context of Repression

  • Rapid-response impulsivity was assessed using a form of the Continuous Performance Test, the Immediate Memory-Delayed Memory Task (IMT/DMT) [16].
  • The patients with E4/4 also showed lowest scores on delayed memory tests and differed from E3/3, 3/2 patients in the list learning test (< 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[17]
  • This study is one in a series that examines the effects of alcohol on attention by using a difficult version of the CPT (Immediate and Delayed Memory Task--IMT/DMT) [18].
  • Final path analyses revealed significant brain-behavior relationships for two of the six cognitive measures: the Trail Making Test part B and visual delayed memory [19].
  • In the present study, we tested whether (-)-nicotine and U-50,488H prevent delayed-memory impairment induced by beta-amyloid peptide (25-35), and changes of expression of alpha7-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mRNA and prodynorphin mRNA [20].


  1. Acute modulation of aged human memory by pharmacological manipulation of glucocorticoids. Lupien, S.J., Wilkinson, C.W., Brière, S., Ng Ying Kin, N.M., Meaney, M.J., Nair, N.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Working-delayed memory difference detects mild cognitive impairment without being affected by age and education. Economou, A., Papageorgiou, S., Karageorgiou, C. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Commission error rates on a continuous performance test are related to deficits measured by the Benton Visual Retention Test. Dougherty, D.M., Mathias, C.W., Marsh, D.M., Greve, K.W., Bjork, J.M., Moeller, F.G. Assessment. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Impulsivity: a link between bipolar disorder and substance abuse. Swann, A.C., Dougherty, D.M., Pazzaglia, P.J., Pham, M., Moeller, F.G. Bipolar disorders. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Acute yohimbine increases laboratory-measured impulsivity in normal subjects. Swann, A.C., Birnbaum, D., Jagar, A.A., Dougherty, D.M., Moeller, F.G. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Prefrontal N-acetylaspartate is strongly associated with memory performance in (abstinent) ecstasy users: preliminary report. Reneman, L., Majoie, C.B., Schmand, B., van den Brink, W., den Heeten, G.J. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Reduced anterior corpus callosum white matter integrity is related to increased impulsivity and reduced discriminability in cocaine-dependent subjects: diffusion tensor imaging. Moeller, F.G., Hasan, K.M., Steinberg, J.L., Kramer, L.A., Dougherty, D.M., Santos, R.M., Valdes, I., Swann, A.C., Barratt, E.S., Narayana, P.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo exposure to carbon monoxide causes delayed impairment of activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide in rat brain cortex and cerebellum. Hernández-Viadel, M., Castoldi, A.F., Coccini, T., Manzo, L., Erceg, S., Felipo, V. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Cognitive functioning in community dwelling older adults with chronic partial epilepsy. Martin, R.C., Griffith, H.R., Faught, E., Gilliam, F., Mackey, M., Vogtle, L. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Involvement of BDNF receptor TrkB in spatial memory formation. Mizuno, M., Yamada, K., He, J., Nakajima, A., Nabeshima, T. Learn. Mem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Memory functions and prophylactic treatment with lithium. Smigan, L., Perris, C. Psychological medicine. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. A non-arousing test situation abolishes the impairing effects of cortisol on delayed memory retrieval in healthy women. Kuhlmann, S., Wolf, O.T. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of losartan and atenolol on memory function in very elderly hypertensive patients. Fogari, R., Mugellini, A., Zoppi, A., Derosa, G., Pasotti, C., Fogari, E., Preti, P. Journal of human hypertension. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. P300 event-related potential amplitude and impulsivity in cocaine-dependent subjects. Moeller, F.G., Barratt, E.S., Fischer, C.J., Dougherty, D.M., Reilly, E.L., Mathias, C.W., Swann, A.C. Neuropsychobiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Preclinical cognitive decline in late middle-aged asymptomatic apolipoprotein E-e4/4 homozygotes: a replication study. Caselli, R.J., Osborne, D., Reiman, E.M., Hentz, J.G., Barbieri, C.J., Saunders, A.M., Hardy, J., Graff-Radford, N.R., Hall, G.R., Alexander, G.E. J. Neurol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Two models of impulsivity: relationship to personality traits and psychopathology. Swann, A.C., Bjork, J.M., Moeller, F.G., Dougherty, D.M. Biol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Volumes of hippocampus, amygdala and frontal lobe in Alzheimer patients with different apolipoprotein E genotypes. Lehtovirta, M., Laakso, M.P., Soininen, H., Helisalmi, S., Mannermaa, A., Helkala, E.L., Partanen, K., Ryynänen, M., Vainio, P., Hartikainen, P. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of moderate and high doses of alcohol on attention, impulsivity, discriminability, and response bias in immediate and delayed memory task performance. Dougherty, D.M., Marsh, D.M., Moeller, F.G., Chokshi, R.V., Rosen, V.C. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Cognitive correlates of human brain aging: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Coffey, C.E., Ratcliff, G., Saxton, J.A., Bryan, R.N., Fried, L.P., Lucke, J.F. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Alpha 7-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and prodynorphin mRNA expression after administration of (-)-nicotine and U-50,488H in beta-amyloid peptide (25-35)-treated mice. Hiramatsu, M., Watanabe, M., Baba, S., Kojima, R., Nabeshima, T. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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