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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Odontoid Process

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Disease relevance of Odontoid Process


High impact information on Odontoid Process

  • Calcification was localised behind the odontoid process, inserted upon the osseous tubercles of the lateral masses of C1, and had a curvilinear profile; it varied in height (1.5 to 9 mm) and appearance (thin = < 1 mm; thick = > 1 mm) and formed either a single or a double band [6].
  • Fracture of the odontoid process complicating tardive dystonia [7].
  • We describe a duplication of the odontoid process in a 6-year-old patient that included a partially fused midline ossicle on the anterior arch of C-1, fusion of the anterior lip of the foramen magnum and the arch of C-1, and an incomplete bony posterior arch of C-1 [8].
  • Between 1984 and 1996, seven patients with symptomatic masses located posterior to the odontoid process and containing calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were evaluated by the senior author (A.H.M) [9].
  • Increased atlanto-axial instability secondary to an atraumatic fracture of the odontoid process in a patient who had rheumatoid arthritis. A case report [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Odontoid Process

  • Radiography and myelography demonstrated cervical stenosis secondary to atlantal (C1) malformation producing a dorsoventral deformity of the laminar arch with atlantoaxial spinal cord compression between the ventrally displaced laminar arch of the atlas and the underlying odontoid process of C2 [11].

Anatomical context of Odontoid Process

  • A hypoplastic posterior arch of C-1 may amplify the risk of spinal cord damage following atlantoaxial subluxation, as the subsequently smaller vertebral canal has less room for dorsal movement of the odontoid process [12].
  • The vertical orientation of the cervical column results in a vertical positioning of the odontoid process of the axis (second cervical vertebra, C2), which thus provides the axis of rotation for yaw movements of the head [13].
  • RESULTS: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures [14].

Associations of Odontoid Process with chemical compounds

  • The apparent absence of a fracture line through the base of the odontoid process on parasagittal or coronal reformations does not rule out the diagnosis [15].
  • The resorbable screw was evaluated for its ability to restore strength and stiffness to the fractured odontoid process compared with traditional titanium screws [16].

Gene context of Odontoid Process


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Odontoid Process


  1. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition in and around the atlantoaxial joint: association with type 2 odontoid fractures in nine patients. Kakitsubata, Y., Boutin, R.D., Theodorou, D.J., Kerr, R.M., Steinbach, L.S., Chan, K.K., Pathria, M.N., Haghighi, P., Resnick, D. Radiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the odontoid process: case report. Andersen, B.J., Goldhagen, P., Cahill, D.W. Neurosurgery (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuropathic arthropathy (Charcot joints) due to cervical osteolysis: a complication of progressive systemic sclerosis. Clement, G.B., Grizzard, K., Vasey, F.B., Germain, B.F., Espinoza, L.R. J. Rheumatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Medically reversible quadriparesis in tophaceous gout. Jacobs, S.R., Edeiken, J., Rubin, B., DeHoratius, R.J. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Sudden death in rheumatoid arthritis from vertical subluxation of the odontoid process. Parish, D.C., Clark, J.A., Liebowitz, S.M., Hicks, W.C. Journal of the National Medical Association. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas in chondrocalcinosis: computed tomography study. Constantin, A., Marin, F., Bon, E., Fedele, M., Lagarrigue, B., Bouteiller, G. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Fracture of the odontoid process complicating tardive dystonia. Konrad, C., Vollmer-Haase, J., Gaubitz, M., Nabavi, D.G., Reilmann, R., Knecht, S. Mov. Disord. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Duplicated odontoid process: plain radiographic and CT appearance of a rare congenital anomaly of the cervical spine. Garant, M., Oudjhane, K., Sinsky, A., O'Gorman, A.M. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Periodontoid calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease: "pseudogout" mass lesions of the craniocervical junction. Zünkeler, B., Schelper, R., Menezes, A.H. J. Neurosurg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased atlanto-axial instability secondary to an atraumatic fracture of the odontoid process in a patient who had rheumatoid arthritis. A case report. Ballard, W.T., Clark, C.R. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Spinal compression due to atlantal vertebral malformation in two African lions (Panthera leo). Galloway, D.S., Coke, R.L., Rochat, M.C., Radinsky, M.A., Hoover, J.P., Carpenter, J.W., Hubbard, J.J., Ketz-Riley, C.J. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypoplastic posterior arch of C-1 in children with Down syndrome: a double jeopardy. Martich, V., Ben-Ami, T., Yousefzadeh, D.K., Roizen, N.J. Radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. The orientation of the cervical vertebral column in unrestrained awake animals. I. Resting position. Vidal, P.P., Graf, W., Berthoz, A. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Multidetector computed tomography of cervical spine fractures in ankylosing spondylitis. Koivikko, M.P., Kiuru, M.J., Koskinen, S.K. Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Computed tomographic scans of minimally displaced type II odontoid fractures. Rubinstein, D., Escott, E.J., Mestek, M.F. The Journal of trauma. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Biomechanical evaluation of a bioresorbable odontoid screw. Ames, C.P., Crawford, N.R., Chamberlain, R.H., Deshmukh, V., Sadikovic, B., Sonntag, V.K. Journal of neurosurgery. Spine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Cranial subluxation of the odontoid process in rheumatoid arthritis. Slätis, P., Santavirta, S., Sandelin, J., Konttinen, Y.T. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Pathologic fracture of odontoid process secondary to amyloid deposition. Manz, H.J., Bauer, H. J. Neurol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Pax-1 in the development of the cervico-occipital transitional zone. Wilting, J., Ebensperger, C., Müller, T.S., Koseki, H., Wallin, J., Christ, B. Anat. Embryol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Spontaneous fracture of the odontoid process in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Nonunion responsible for compression of the upper cervical cord. Kremer, P., Despaux, J., Benmansour, A., Wendling, D. Revue du rhumatisme (English ed.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation with odontoid fracture: case report and review. Fuentes, S., Bouillot, P., Palombi, O., Ducolombier, A., Desgeorges , M. Spine. (2001) [Pubmed]
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