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MeSH Review

Zygapophyseal Joint

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Disease relevance of Zygapophyseal Joint


High impact information on Zygapophyseal Joint

  • The spectrum of atlantoaxial facet joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis [6].
  • RESULTS: Control subjects were not significantly different from patients with fractures in age, weight, number of current illnesses, number of prescribed medications, number of pain medications, ratings of lumbar spine degenerative disc disease, or lumbar spine facet joint arthritis [7].
  • Epidural steroid and facet joint injections had the highest volume and reimbursement during this time period and were performed almost exclusively by nonradiologists (predominantly anesthesiologists) [8].
  • In seven cats, anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose, bradykinin (BK) of concentrations between 12 and 50 microg was injected into the facet joint between C1 and C2 [9].
  • CONCLUSION: Image-guided percutaneous steroid injections are often effective in the treatment of lumbar facet joint synovial cysts and may result in complete regression of the cyst [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of Zygapophyseal Joint


Biological context of Zygapophyseal Joint

  • The maximum range of motion between two adjacent vertebrae without soft tissues was measured from C1-C2 down to L5-S and factors such as rotation, lateral bending, extension, and flexion, during surface contact movement of the facet joints, were investigated [15].

Anatomical context of Zygapophyseal Joint


Associations of Zygapophyseal Joint with chemical compounds

  • When evaluating the C2/C3 facet joint injection, one has to take possible leakage of anesthetic agent from the joint into consideration, since the third occipital nerve which runs close to the facet joint may be anesthetized through the leakage [10].
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of referred pain from the cervical zygapophyseal joints (C0/1 to C7/Th1) and the cervical dorsal rami (C3 to C7) [21].
  • Localization of substance P and neurofilament immunoreactive fibers in the lumbar facet joint capsule and supraspinous ligament of the rabbit [22].
  • The present study suggests that the change in the orientation of the superior articular process, from the coronal to the sagittal plane (sagittalisation), occurs due to the change in the direction of weight transmission through zygapophyseal joints at the thoracolumbar junction [23].
  • The effect of lidocaine injection into the facet joint and subperiosteal muscle detachment on the electromyographic response were studied [24].

Gene context of Zygapophyseal Joint

  • In the FOP patient group, characteristic anomalies, including large posterior elements, tall narrow vertebral bodies,and fusion of the facet joints between C2 and C7, were observed [25].
  • At T12, frequency depended on the orientation of the zygapophyseal joints of T11-12 which determined the range of rotation [26].
  • METHODS: Tissue samples of ligamentum flavum (n = 32), facet joint capsule (n = 20), intervertebral disc (n = 15), and spine roots (n = 8) were immunostained with specific antibodies to protein gene product 9.5 (a panneuronal marker), SNS/PN3, and NaN/SNS2 [27].
  • C1-C2 lateral facet joint involvement is common in RA, correlates with disease severity generally and specifically with that in the cervical spine, and, when severe, causes nonreducible rotational tilt of the patient's head [6].
  • Facet arthrograms in patients with lumbar spondylolyses show spread of contrast medium through pars interarticularis defects into the adjacent ipsilateral facet joint space and across the midline into the contralateral joint space [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Zygapophyseal Joint

  • Under fluoroscopic control, the zygapophyseal joints from C0/1 to C7/Th1 were stimulated by the injection of contrast medium and while electrical stimulation of the cervical zygapophyseal dorsal rami at segments C3 to C7 was performed during facet denervation [21].
  • Arthrography was performed during steroid injection in 14 patients (22 joints) with noninflammatory conditions of the cervical facet joints [29].
  • Twenty-three patients with severe, longterm (22 years, range 8-36) rheumatoid arthritis were evaluated for rheumatoid changes in the atlantoaxial facet joints using a panoramic zonography program [30].
  • Using ELISA and CLEIA methods, joint cartilage and synovial tissues were harvested during surgery from the facet joint at the responsible upper levels to measure IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in individual tissues [31].
  • Spinal levels were marked on the subject's skin overlying the facet joints from C1 to C7 bilaterally and the motion segments were then marked alphabetically with 'A' corresponding to C1-2.Kappa coefficients (K) were calculated to determine the validity of motion palpation to detect the congenitally fused segments as the 'most hypomobile' segments [32].


  1. Lack of effect of intraarticular corticosteroids for chronic pain in the cervical zygapophyseal joints. Barnsley, L., Lord, S.M., Wallis, B.J., Bogduk, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Atlantoaxial (C1-C2) facet joint osteoarthritis: a distinctive clinical syndrome. Halla, J.T., Hardin, J.G. Arthritis Rheum. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Septic arthritis of the C1-C2 lateral facet joint and torticollis: pseudo-Grisel's syndrome. Halla, J.T., Bliznak, J., Hardin, J.G., Finn, S. Arthritis Rheum. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Lumbar facet joint synovial cyst: percutaneous treatment with steroid injections and distention--clinical and imaging follow-up in 12 patients. Bureau, N.J., Kaplan, P.A., Dussault, R.G. Radiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Facet joint injection and facet nerve block: a randomised comparison in 86 patients with chronic low back pain. Marks, R.C., Houston, T., Thulbourne, T. Pain (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. The spectrum of atlantoaxial facet joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Halla, J.T., Hardin, J.G. Arthritis Rheum. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Association of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with impaired functional status. Lyles, K.W., Gold, D.T., Shipp, K.M., Pieper, C.F., Martinez, S., Mulhausen, P.L. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Spinal injection procedures: volume, provider distribution, and reimbursement in the U.S. medicare population from 1993 to 1999. Carrino, J.A., Morrison, W.B., Parker, L., Schweitzer, M.E., Levin, D.C., Sunshine, J.H. Radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Influences on the fusimotor-muscle spindle system from chemosensitive nerve endings in cervical facet joints in the cat: possible implications for whiplash induced disorders. Thunberg, J., Hellström, F., Sjölander, P., Bergenheim, M., Wenngren, B., Johansson, H. Pain (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Cervicogenic headache: anesthetic blockades of cervical nerves (C2-C5) and facet joint (C2/C3). Bovim, G., Berg, R., Dale, L.G. Pain (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Decompression for degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis at L4-5. The effects on facet joint morphology. Grobler, L.J., Robertson, P.A., Novotny, J.E., Ahern, J.W. Spine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Capacity of the clinical picture to characterize low back pain relieved by facet joint anesthesia. Proposed criteria to identify patients with painful facet joints. Revel, M., Poiraudeau, S., Auleley, G.R., Payan, C., Denke, A., Nguyen, M., Chevrot, A., Fermanian, J. Spine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Cervical myelopathy caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition in facet joints. A case report. Omura, K., Hukuda, S., Matsumoto, K., Katsuura, A., Nishioka, J., Imai, S. Spine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Spinal stenosis. Results of treatment. Tile, M., McNeil, S.R., Zarins, R.K., Pennal, G.F., Garside, S.H. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Anatomical and biomechanical factors in the curve pattern formation of idiopathic scoliosis. Kashimoto, T., Yamamuro, T., Hatakeyama, K. Acta orthopaedica Scandinavica. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers projecting to lumbar facet joints through the paravertebral sympathetic trunk in rats. Suseki, K., Takahashi, Y., Takahashi, K., Chiba, T., Tanaka, K., Moriya, H. Neurosci. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Amyloidosis-related cauda equina compression in long-term hemodialysis patients. Three case reports. Marcelli, C., Pérennou, D., Cyteval, C., Leray, H., Lamarque, J.L., Mion, C., Simon, L. Spine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. The quantitative anatomy of the atlas. Doherty, B.J., Heggeness, M.H. Spine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Musculoskeletal causes of spinal axis compromise: beyond the usual suspects. Munday, T.L., Johnson, M.H., Hayes, C.W., Thompson, E.O., Smoker, W.R. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of bupivacaine application on cholinesterase activities, total protein- and albumin concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Kluge, W.H., Kluge, H.H., König, U., Venbrocks, R.A., Bauer, H.I., Lange, M. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Referred pain distribution of the cervical zygapophyseal joints and cervical dorsal rami. Fukui, S., Ohseto, K., Shiotani, M., Ohno, K., Karasawa, H., Naganuma, Y., Yuda, Y. Pain (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Localization of substance P and neurofilament immunoreactive fibers in the lumbar facet joint capsule and supraspinous ligament of the rabbit. el-Bohy, A., Cavanaugh, J.M., Getchell, M.L., Bulas, T., Getchell, T.V., King, A.I. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Mechanism of change in the orientation of the articular process of the zygapophyseal joint at the thoracolumbar junction. Pal, G.P., Routal, R.V. J. Anat. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Electromyographic response of the porcine multifidus musculature after nerve stimulation. Indahl, A., Kaigle, A., Reikerås, O., Holm, S. Spine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Developmental anomalies of the cervical spine in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva are distinctly different from those in patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome: clues from the BMP signaling pathway. Schaffer, A.A., Kaplan, F.S., Tracy, M.R., O'Brien, M.L., Dormans, J.P., Shore, E.M., Harland, R.M., Kusumi, K. Spine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Frequency and size of ossifications in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum of the thoracic spine. Role of rotatory strains in their development. An anatomic study of 121 spines. Maigne, J.Y., Ayral, X., Guérin-Surville, H. Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Nerve fibers in lumbar spine structures and injured spinal roots express the sensory neuron-specific sodium channels SNS/PN3 and NaN/SNS2. Bucknill, A.T., Coward, K., Plumpton, C., Tate, S., Bountra, C., Birch, R., Sandison, A., Hughes, S.P., Anand, P. Spine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Facet joint arthrography in lumbar spondylolysis: anatomic basis for spread of contrast medium. McCormick, C.C., Taylor, J.R., Twomey, L.T. Radiology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Arthrography of the cervical facet joints. Dory, M.A. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Atlantoaxial facet joint arthritis in the rheumatoid cervical spine. A panoramic zonography study. Santavirta, S., Hopfner-Hallikainen, D., Paukku, P., Sandelin, J., Konttinen, Y.T. J. Rheumatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Inflammatory cytokines released from the facet joint tissue in degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. Igarashi, A., Kikuchi, S., Konno, S., Olmarker, K. Spine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard'. Humphreys, B.K., Delahaye, M., Peterson, C.K. BMC musculoskeletal disorders [electronic resource]. (2004) [Pubmed]
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