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Disease relevance of Diastema


High impact information on Diastema

  • Gas1 is normally expressed throughout mandibular arch mesenchyme; however, in the absence of epithelium this expression was downregulated specifically in the diastema where ectopic Shh protein was identified [3].
  • This inhibitory activity was demonstrated by the ability of transplanted diastema epithelium to downregulate Ptc1 in tooth explants, and for isolated diastema mesenchyme to express Ptc1 [3].
  • Although the diastema regions of the two species differed, in both species the earliest difference that we found was weaker expression of mesenchymal Pax9 in the diastema region than in molar and incisor regions at the dental lamina stage [4].
  • By in situ hybridization we investigated the expression patterns of the msx-1, msx-2, BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes, supposed to regulate early tooth development, in day 10-14 mouse embryonic upper diastema and molar regions, using 49 series of frontal sections [5].
  • In many cases it is necessary to perform a frenectomy to prevent reopening of a midline diastema following closure by orthodontic therapy [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Diastema

  • Precedence in adult orthodontics concentrated on correcting diastemas and malpositioned teeth, leveling infrabony defects, reducing periodontal depths, leveling occlusal planes, and creating harmonious gingival-lip line relationships [7].
  • In embryos of albino mice of ICR strain, collected between days 13 and 15, the epithelial lining within the future upper maxillary diastema was studied using frontal histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and PAS methods [8].

Anatomical context of Diastema


Gene context of Diastema

  • Some of the dental features reported include macrodontia, hypodontia, delayed eruption, and midline diastema [11].
  • Diastema correction sans orthodontic treatment [12].
  • RESULTS: Mild fluorosis was assessed less favorably than normal/control, midline diastema was less favorable than mild fluorosis, and mild fluorosis was less favorable than isolated opacity [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Diastema


  1. Management of a hyperdivergent Class III malocclusion, maxillary midline diastema, and infected mandibular incisors in a young adult. Suri, S., Utreja, A. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Maxillary midline diastema: a case report involving a combined orthodontic/maxillofacial approach. Campbell, A., Kindelan, J. Journal of orthodontics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Restriction of sonic hedgehog signalling during early tooth development. Cobourne, M.T., Miletich, I., Sharpe, P.T. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene expression patterns associated with suppression of odontogenesis in mouse and vole diastema regions. Keränen, S.V., Kettunen, P., Aberg, T., Thesleff, I., Jernvall, J. Dev. Genes Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of expression of the msx-1, msx-2, BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes in the mouse upper diastemal and molar tooth primordia. Turecková, J., Sahlberg, C., Aberg, T., Ruch, J.V., Thesleff, I., Peterkova, R. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. The frenectomy combined with a laterally positioned pedicle graft. Functional and esthetic considerations. Miller, P.D. J. Periodontol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Adult orthodontics: periodontic and cosmetic enhancements. Marks, M.H., Rosen, P.S. Compendium (Newtown, Pa.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Dental lamina develops even within the mouse diastema. Peterková, R. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Spatial distribution of epidermal growth-factor transcripts and effects of exogenous epidermal growth factor on the pattern of the mouse dental lamina. Kronmiller, J.E. Arch. Oral Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Occurrence of midline diastema and frenum attachments amongst school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Kaimenyi, J.T. Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Dubowitz syndrome: report of a case with emphasis on the oral features. Chan, K.M., King, N.M. Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Diastema correction sans orthodontic treatment. Platzer, K.M. The New York state dental journal. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. A pilot study of dental students' esthetic perceptions of computer-generated mild dental fluorosis compared to other conditions. McKnight, C.B., Levy, S.M., Cooper, S.E., Jakobsen, J.R., Warren, J.J. Journal of public health dentistry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Incidence and etiology of midline diastema in a population in south India (Madras). Nainar, S.M., Gnanasundaram, N. The Angle orthodontist. (1989) [Pubmed]
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