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Disease relevance of Calophyllum


High impact information on Calophyllum

  • A number of natural products have been reported to interact with the reverse transcriptase, i.e., baicalin, avarol, avarone, psychotrine, phloroglucinol derivatives, and, in particular, calanolides (from the tropical rainforest tree, Calophyllum lanigerum) and inophyllums (from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum) [4].
  • Fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums A, B, C, and E and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., a known source of nutrition for A. fulica [5].
  • The calanolides, a novel HIV-inhibitory class of coumarin derivatives from the tropical rainforest tree, Calophyllum lanigerum [6].
  • (-)-Quinine-catalyzed intramolecular oxo-Michael addition (IMA) of 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-8-tigloylcoumarins was developed for the enantioselective construction of 2,3-dimethyl-4-chromanone systems in the context of the asymmetric synthesis of anti-HIV-1 active Calophyllum coumarins [7].
  • Two new xanthones, caledonixanthone M 1 and caloxanthone L 2, and one new acid, caledonic acid 6 were isolated from the hexane-soluble extract of the stem bark of Calophyllum caledonicum [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Calophyllum

  • The best extracts were Calophyllum brasiliense (hexane) and Clusia quadrangula (CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH) which inhibited HIV-1 RT (IC(50)=29.6 microg/ml and 42 microg/ml), and showed an EC(50)=92.5 microg/ml and 91 microg/ml, respectively, on MT2 cells [9].

Associations of Calophyllum with chemical compounds


Gene context of Calophyllum


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Calophyllum


  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 replication by Calophyllum coumarins and xanthones. Dharmaratne, H.R., Tan, G.T., Marasinghe, G.P., Pezzuto, J.M. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase mediated by soulattrolide, a coumarin isolated from the latex of calophyllum teysmannii. Pengsuparp, T., Serit, M., Hughes, S.H., Soejarto, D.D., Pezzuto, J.M. J. Nat. Prod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Antimicrobial activity of xanthones from Calophyllum species, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Dharmaratne, H.R., Wijesinghe, W.M., Thevanasem, V. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Current lead natural products for the chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. De Clercq, E. Medicinal research reviews. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The inophyllums, novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. Patil, A.D., Freyer, A.J., Eggleston, D.S., Haltiwanger, R.C., Bean, M.F., Taylor, P.B., Caranfa, M.J., Breen, A.L., Bartus, H.R., Johnson, R.K. J. Med. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. The calanolides, a novel HIV-inhibitory class of coumarin derivatives from the tropical rainforest tree, Calophyllum lanigerum. Kashman, Y., Gustafson, K.R., Fuller, R.W., Cardellina, J.H., McMahon, J.B., Currens, M.J., Buckheit, R.W., Hughes, S.H., Cragg, G.M., Boyd, M.R. J. Med. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Concise synthesis of anti-HIV-1 active (+)-inophyllum B and (+)-calanolide A by application of (-)-quinine-catalyzed intramolecular oxo-Michael addition. Sekino, E., Kumamoto, T., Tanaka, T., Ikeda, T., Ishikawa, T. J. Org. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Antifungal chromans inhibiting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of pea seeds and new xanthones from Calophyllum caledonicum. Hay, A.E., Guilet, D., Morel, C., Larcher, G., Macherel, D., Le Ray, A.M., Litaudon, M., Richomme, P. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. HIV-1 inhibition by extracts of Clusiaceae species from Mexico. Huerta-Reyes, M., Basualdo, M.d.e.l. .C., Lozada, L., Jimenez-Estrada, M., Soler, C., Reyes-Chilpa, R. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Inocalophyllins A, B and their methyl esters from the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum. Shen, Y.C., Hung, M.C., Wang, L.T., Chen, C.Y. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Distribution of pyranocoumarins in Calophyllum cordato-oblongum. Dharmaratne, H.R., Mayuri Sajeevani, J.R., Marasinghe, G.P., Shantha Ekanayake, E.M. Phytochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. A polyisoprenylated ketone from Calophyllum enervosum. Taher, M., Idris, M.S., Ahmad, F., Arbain, D. Phytochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. New chromanone acids with antibacterial activity from Calophyllum brasiliense. Cottiglia, F., Dhanapal, B., Sticher, O., Heilmann, J. J. Nat. Prod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Composition of fatty acids triacylglycerols and unsaponifiable matter in Calophyllum calaba L. oil from Guadeloupe. Crane, S., Aurore, G., Joseph, H., Mouloungui, Z., Bourgeois, P. Phytochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors from Calophyllum membranaceum. Zou, J., Jin, D., Chen, W., Wang, J., Liu, Q., Zhu, X., Zhao, W. J. Nat. Prod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Gastroprotective effect from Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. bark on experimental gastric lesions in rats and mice. Sartori, N.T., Canepelle, D., de Sousa, P.T., Martins, D.T. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. HIV-1 inhibitory compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense leaves. Huerta-Reyes, M., Basualdo, M.d.e.l. .C., Abe, F., Jimenez-Estrada, M., Soler, C., Reyes-Chilpa, R. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2004) [Pubmed]
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