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MeSH Review

Unsafe Sex

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Disease relevance of Unsafe Sex


High impact information on Unsafe Sex

  • A multiplicity of sexual partners, low socio-economic status and cocaine use were important predictors of unprotected sex among men living without a companion [2].
  • Those who engaged in UAI expressed less self-evaluation with regard to their unsafe sexual practices, had higher levels of hedonism associated with unsafe sex, and were more likely both to inject recreation drugs and use methamphetamine in particular [3].
  • Established immigrants more likely reported unprotected sex, hallucinogen or ecstasy use [4].
  • The current levels of unsafe sex reported in the Longitudinal AIDS Impact Project are shown to be almost exactly on the epidemic threshold [5].
  • Perhaps, the most intriguing question is why, when certain relevant facts about unhealthy behaviour are beyond dispute, such as the effect of drinking excessive alcohol, smoking nicotine, having unsafe sex, poor family caring or receiving insensitive treatment, it remains so difficult to bring about improvement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[6]

Biological context of Unsafe Sex

  • Men reporting no unprotected anal sex also reported less use of nitrate inhalants, lower temptation for unsafe sex, and fewer HIV-negative and unknown-status partners [7].

Associations of Unsafe Sex with chemical compounds

  • When associations with specific drugs and nitrite inhalants were examined separately, current use of cocaine and other stimulants (OR 1.25; CI 1.01, 1.55), hallucinogens (OR 1.40; CI 1.10, 1.77), and nitrite inhalants (some (OR 1.61; CI 1.35, 1.92); heavy (OR 2.18; CI 1.48, 3.20)), were independently associated with unprotected sex [8].
  • Some data point to a relationship between MDMA use and risky behaviors including unprotected sex [9].
  • The harms that require further investigation are the association between ketamine and unsafe sex and injecting behaviors, the neurotoxic effects, and use in situations where there is a heightened risk of accidental death when the user's cognition is grossly impaired [10].
  • Poppers also showed a statistically significant association with unsafe sex in 12 months (not necessarily at parties) while crystal meth and GHB showed a trend [11].
  • Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex [12].

Gene context of Unsafe Sex


  1. HIV risk reduction in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study. Woody, G.E., Gallop, R., Luborsky, L., Blaine, J., Frank, A., Salloum, I.M., Gastfriend, D., Crits-Christoph, P. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Knowledge, practices and behaviours related to HIV transmission among the Brazilian population in the 15-54 years age group, 2004. Szwarcwald, C.L., Barbosa-Júnior, A., Pascom, A.R., de Souza-Júnior, P.R. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Seroconcordant sexual partnerings of HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men. Halkitis, P.N., Green, K.A., Remien, R.H., Stirratt, M.J., Hoff, C.C., Wolitski, R.J., Parsons, J.T. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. HIV-related risk behavior among Hispanic immigrant men in a population-based household survey in low-income neighborhoods of northern California. Levy, V., Page-Shafer, K., Evans, J., Ruiz, J., Morrow, S., Reardon, J., Lynch, M., Raymond, H.F., Klausner, J.D., Facer, M., Molitor, F., Allen, B., Ajufo, B.G., Ferrero, D., Sanford, G.B., McFarland, W. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of sexual behavior change on long-term human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among homosexual men. Morris, M., Dean, L. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Psychosomatics for all--past, present and future. Aitken, C. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Correlates of sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Parsons, J.T., Halkitis, P.N., Wolitski, R.J., Gómez, C.A. AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Non-injection substance use correlates with risky sex among men having sex with men: data from HIVNET. Woody, G.E., Donnell, D., Seage, G.R., Metzger, D., Marmor, M., Koblin, B.A., Buchbinder, S., Gross, M., Stone, B., Judson, F.N. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Epidemiology of MDMA and associated club drugs in the Seattle area. Banta-Green, C., Goldbaum, G., Kingston, S., Golden, M., Harruff, R., Logan, B.K. Substance use & misuse. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Recent trends in the use of "club drugs": an Australian review. Degenhardt, L., Copeland, J., Dillon, P. Substance use & misuse. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Circuit party attendance, club drug use, and unsafe sex in gay men. Mattison, A.M., Ross, M.W., Wolfson, T., Franklin, D. Journal of substance abuse. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics. Stein, Z., Saez, H., el-Sadr, W., Healton, C., Mannheimer, S., Messeri, P., Scimeca, M.M., Van Devanter, N., Zimmerman, R., Betne, P. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The social context of drinking, drug use, and unsafe sex in the Boston Young Men Study. Seage, G.R., Mayer, K.H., Wold, C., Lenderking, W.R., Goldstein, R., Cai, B., Gross, M., Heeren, T., Hingson, R. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Impact on contraceptive practice of making emergency hormonal contraception available over the counter in Great Britain: repeated cross sectional surveys. Marston, C., Meltzer, H., Majeed, A. BMJ (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The coming-out process and its adaptational and health-related associations among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: stipulation and exploration of a model. Rosario, M., Hunter, J., Maguen, S., Gwadz, M., Smith, R. American journal of community psychology. (2001) [Pubmed]
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