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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Ethnic Groups

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Disease relevance of Ethnic Groups


Psychiatry related information on Ethnic Groups


High impact information on Ethnic Groups

  • METHODS: We tested for mutations in GJB2 in DNA samples from three Ashkenazi Jewish families with nonsyndromic recessive deafness, from Ashkenazi Jewish persons seeking carrier testing for other conditions, and from members of other ethnic groups [11].
  • Human milk samples from different ethnic groups contain RNase that inhibits, and plasma membrane that stimulates, reverse transcription [12].
  • PATIENTS: The study was restricted to patients of Jewish origin because of the ease of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genotyping in this ethnic group [13].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The APOE epsilon4 allele represents a major risk factor for AD in all ethnic groups studied, across all ages between 40 and 90 years, and in both men and women [14].
  • Controlling for dissimilarities in academic background greatly reduced Part I differences among most racial and ethnic groups, except Asian/Pacific Islander men; unexplained differences remained between men and women [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ethnic Groups


Biological context of Ethnic Groups

  • In about 30%-55% of individuals, depending on the ethnic group, there is a virtual absence of GSTM1 enzyme activity due to deletion of both copies of the GSTM1 gene (GSTM1 null genotype) [21].
  • Extensive studies in different ethnic groups have associated the susceptibility to development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the third hypervariable region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) HLA-DR beta 1 molecule [22].
  • From published studies of the HRAS1 VNTR locus, which classified alleles into types, we found only small differences in the allele frequency distributions of samples from various European nations, although there were larger differences among ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Oriental) [23].
  • In general, the distribution of GDH phenotypes was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three ethnic groups studied [24].
  • The TBG polymorphism is inherited in X-linked fashion, based on data from American blacks, and thus provides an X-chromosome marker with a relatively high gene frequency in this ethnic group (frequency of the slow allele, TBGs, is 11%) [25].

Anatomical context of Ethnic Groups

  • If a high prolactin/estradiol ratio increases the susceptibility of the mammary epithelium to neoplastic growth, the lack of changes in prolactin levels in premenopausal Japanese patients and in postmenopausal patients of the three ethnic groups indicates that other factors are involved [26].
  • However, compared with abdominally obese white individuals, abdominally obese black individuals have been characterized by higher plasma HDL cholesterol levels, suggesting that the impact of abdominal fat accumulation on the lipoprotein-lipid profile may differ among ethnic groups [27].
  • Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with percent body fat (r = -0.43), waist-to-thigh ratio (r = -0.46), fasting plasma insulin concentration (r = -0.63), and 2-h glucose concentration (r = -0.38), and positively correlated with M (r = 0.59) (all P < 0.001); all relations were evident in both ethnic groups [19].
  • We noted no differences in the amniotic fluid enzyme activities for the Arab and various Jewish ethnic groups living in Israel. We conclude that prenatal diagnosis of CF among the Israeli population at risk for CF is feasible by means of a reliable, fast, and economic test in the second trimester of pregnancy [28].
  • Vaccines designed to bring forth CD8+ T cell responses in different racial and ethnic groups will require inclusion of T cell epitopes presented by various MHC class I molecules [29].

Associations of Ethnic Groups with chemical compounds


Gene context of Ethnic Groups


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ethnic Groups


  1. Chromosome 19 single-locus and multilocus haplotype associations with multiple sclerosis. Evidence of a new susceptibility locus in Caucasian and Chinese patients. Barcellos, L.F., Thomson, G., Carrington, M., Schafer, J., Begovich, A.B., Lin, P., Xu, X.H., Min, B.Q., Marti, D., Klitz, W. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of Hb D-Punjab gene: application of DNA amplification in the study of abnormal hemoglobins. Zeng, Y.T., Huang, S.Z., Ren, Z.R., Li, H.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene in patients with oculocutaneous albinism from various ethnic groups in Israel. Gershoni-Baruch, R., Rosenmann, A., Droetto, S., Holmes, S., Tripathi, R.K., Spritz, R.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Multiple origins for phenylketonuria in Europe. Eisensmith, R.C., Okano, Y., Dasovich, M., Wang, T., Güttler, F., Lou, H., Guldberg, P., Lichter-Konecki, U., Konecki, D.S., Svensson, E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. A synonymous SNP of the corneodesmosin gene leads to increased mRNA stability and demonstrates association with psoriasis across diverse ethnic groups. Capon, F., Allen, M.H., Ameen, M., Burden, A.D., Tillman, D., Barker, J.N., Trembath, R.C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Probing the meaning of racial/ethnic group comparisons in crack cocaine smoking. Lillie-Blanton, M., Anthony, J.C., Schuster, C.R. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions confer risk of narcolepsy-cataplexy in three ethnic groups. Mignot, E., Lin, L., Rogers, W., Honda, Y., Qiu, X., Lin, X., Okun, M., Hohjoh, H., Miki, T., Hsu, S., Leffell, M., Grumet, F., Fernandez-Vina, M., Honda, M., Risch, N. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Incidence of bipolar affective disorder in three UK cities: results from the AESOP study. Lloyd, T., Kennedy, N., Fearon, P., Kirkbride, J., Mallett, R., Leff, J., Holloway, J., Harrison, G., Dazzan, P., Morgan, K., Murray, R.M., Jones, P.B. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Serum high density lipoprotein subclasses, testosterone and sex-hormone-binding globulin in Trinidadian men of African and Indian descent. Miller, G.J., Wheeler, M.J., Price, S.G., Beckles, G.L., Kirkwood, B.R., Carson, D.C. Atherosclerosis (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. The 717Val----Ile substitution in amyloid precursor protein is associated with familial Alzheimer's disease regardless of ethnic groups. Yoshioka, K., Miki, T., Katsuya, T., Ogihara, T., Sakaki, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) among Ashkenazi Jews with nonsyndromic recessive deafness. Morell, R.J., Kim, H.J., Hood, L.J., Goforth, L., Friderici, K., Fisher, R., Van Camp, G., Berlin, C.I., Oddoux, C., Ostrer, H., Keats, B., Friedman, T.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Human milk samples from different ethnic groups contain RNase that inhibits, and plasma membrane that stimulates, reverse transcription. Das, M.R., Padhy, L.C., Koshy, R., Sirsat, S.M., Rich, M.A. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinicopathologic features of BRCA-linked and sporadic ovarian cancer. Boyd, J., Sonoda, Y., Federici, M.G., Bogomolniy, F., Rhei, E., Maresco, D.L., Saigo, P.E., Almadrones, L.A., Barakat, R.R., Brown, C.L., Chi, D.S., Curtin, J.P., Poynor, E.A., Hoskins, W.J. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease. A meta-analysis. APOE and Alzheimer Disease Meta Analysis Consortium. Farrer, L.A., Cupples, L.A., Haines, J.L., Hyman, B., Kukull, W.A., Mayeux, R., Myers, R.H., Pericak-Vance, M.A., Risch, N., van Duijn, C.M. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners. Part I Examination by men and women of different race and ethnicity. Dawson, B., Iwamoto, C.K., Ross, L.P., Nungester, R.J., Swanson, D.B., Volle, R.L. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups: I. The effects of HLA class II, C4, and CR1 alleles, socioeconomic factors, and ethnicity at disease onset. LUMINA Study Group. Lupus in minority populations, nature versus nurture. Reveille, J.D., Moulds, J.M., Ahn, C., Friedman, A.W., Baethge, B., Roseman, J., Straaton, K.V., Alarcón, G.S. Arthritis Rheum. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase are associated with HLA-DR genotypes in both Australians and Asians with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Serjeantson, S.W., Kohonen-Corish, M.R., Rowley, M.J., Mackay, I.R., Knowles, W., Zimmet, P. Diabetologia (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of maximal acid output and gastrin response to meals in Chinese and Scottish normal and duodenal ulcer subjects. Lam, S.K., Hasan, M., Sircus, W., Wong, J., Ong, G.B., Prescott, R.J. Gut (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Weyer, C., Funahashi, T., Tanaka, S., Hotta, K., Matsuzawa, Y., Pratley, R.E., Tataranni, P.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a sample population of black subjects in Florida. Jones, C.D., Smart, C., Titus, A., Blyden, G., Dorvil, M., Nwadike, N. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and lung cancer risk among African-Americans and Caucasians in Los Angeles County, California. London, S.J., Daly, A.K., Cooper, J., Navidi, W.C., Carpenter, C.L., Idle, J.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Could HLA-DRB1 be the protective locus in rheumatoid arthritis? Zanelli, E., Gonzalez-Gay, M.A., David, C.S. Immunol. Today (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Population genetics of the HRAS1 minisatellite locus. Devlin, B., Krontiris, T., Risch, N. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Glucose dehydrogenase polymorphism among ethnic groups of Singapore--with report of two additional alleles (GDH4 and GDH5). Saha, N., Bhattacharyya, S.P., Yeoh, S.C., Chua, S.P., Ratnam, S.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Detection of genetic variation with radioactive ligands. IV. X-linked, polymorphic genetic variation of thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG). Daiger, S.P., Rummel, D.P., Wang, L., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Prolactin levels in populations at risk for breast cancer. Hill, P., Wynder, E.L., Kumar, H., Helman, P., Rona, G., Kuno, K. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Race, visceral adipose tissue, plasma lipids, and lipoprotein lipase activity in men and women: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) family study. Després, J.P., Couillard, C., Gagnon, J., Bergeron, J., Leon, A.S., Rao, D.C., Skinner, J.S., Wilmore, J.H., Bouchard, C. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Enzyme analysis of amniotic fluid for prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in high-risk pregnancies. Peretz, H., Chemke, J., Usher, S., Legum, C., Graff, E. Clin. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Cross-reactive CD8+ T cell epitopes identified in US adolescent minorities. Sabbaj, S., Bansal, A., Ritter, G.D., Perkins, C., Edwards, B.H., Gough, E., Tang, J., Szinger, J.J., Korber, B., Wilson, C.M., Kaslow, R.A., Mulligan, M.J., Goepfert, P.A. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparative analysis of the apo(a) gene, apo(a) glycoprotein, and plasma concentrations of Lp(a) in three ethnic groups. Evidence for no common "null" allele at the apo(a) locus. Gaw, A., Boerwinkle, E., Cohen, J.C., Hobbs, H.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. A genetic study of lactose digestion in Nigerian families. Ransome-Kuti, O., Kretchmer, N., Johnson, J.D., Gribble, J.T. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. Plasma homocysteine concentrations and risk of coronary heart disease in UK Indian Asian and European men. Chambers, J.C., Obeid, O.A., Refsum, H., Ueland, P., Hackett, D., Hooper, J., Turner, R.M., Thompson, S.G., Kooner, J.S. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Nicotine metabolism varies between different ethnic groups. Pirisi, A. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Population genetics of CAPN10 and GPR35: implications for the evolution of type 2 diabetes variants. Vander Molen, J., Frisse, L.M., Fullerton, S.M., Qian, Y., Del Bosque-Plata, L., Hudson, R.R., Di Rienzo, A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Polymorphism of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene in African-Americans. Hon, Y.Y., Fessing, M.Y., Pui, C.H., Relling, M.V., Krynetski, E.Y., Evans, W.E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Polymorphisms in the PON gene cluster are associated with Alzheimer disease. Erlich, P.M., Lunetta, K.L., Cupples, L.A., Huyck, M., Green, R.C., Baldwin, C.T., Farrer, L.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. A candidate gene association study on preterm delivery: application of high-throughput genotyping technology and advanced statistical methods. Hao, K., Wang, X., Niu, T., Xu, X., Li, A., Chang, W., Wang, L., Li, G., Laird, N., Xu, X. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Variation of short tandem repeats within and between populations. Wall, W.J., Williamson, R., Petrou, M., Papaioannou, D., Parkin, B.H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Genetic Heterogeneity in Association of the SUMO4 M55V Variant With Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes. Noso, S., Ikegami, H., Fujisawa, T., Kawabata, Y., Asano, K., Hiromine, Y., Tsurumaru, M., Sugihara, S., Lee, I., Kawasaki, E., Awata, T., Ogihara, T. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Isolated low HDL cholesterol: an insulin-resistant state only in the presence of fasting hypertriglyceridemia. Tai, E.S., Emmanuel, S.C., Chew, S.K., Tan, B.Y., Tan, C.E. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XI. Sources of discrepancy in perception of disease activity: a comparison of physician and patient visual analog scale scores. Alarcón, G.S., McGwin, G., Brooks, K., Roseman, J.M., Fessler, B.J., Sanchez, M.L., Bastian, H.M., Friedman, A.W., Baethge, B.A., Reveille, J.D. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Quantitative alleles of CR1: coding sequence analysis and comparison of haplotypes in two ethnic groups. Xiang, L., Rundles, J.R., Hamilton, D.R., Wilson, J.G. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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