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MeSH Review

Thoracic Vertebrae

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High impact information on Thoracic Vertebrae

  • Cdx2-null embryos die before gastrulation, and Cdx2 heterozygotes display anterior transformations of lower cervical and thoracic vertebrae [1].
  • Cdx1 null mutants show anterior homeosis of upper cervical and thoracic vertebrae [1].
  • The majority of disagreement between the two methods resulted from different classification of mild wedge and endplate deformities and the poor visualization of upper thoracic vertebrae on the XA scans [2].
  • One hundred and eleven elective patients had two paravertebral catheters inserted: one either side of the midline within 2.5 cm of the spinous process of the third or fourth thoracic vertebrae, through which a mixture of ropivacaine and fentanyl was infused during and after surgery [3].
  • Placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. Part I: Morphometric analysis of the thoracic vertebrae [4].

Anatomical context of Thoracic Vertebrae

  • In both dogs plain radiography of the vertebral column revealed a solitary mineralised lesion on the dorsal laminae between the dorsal spines of the second and third thoracic vertebrae, and myelography with iopamidol demonstrated cord compression at the level of the lesions [5].
  • Deformity of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae and ribs and dilatation of the renal pelvis were predominantly found in fetuses of dams treated with DBP on day 9 [6].
  • An autogeneous bone graft, taken from the right ilium (1.5 x 1.5 x 3 cm in size), was implanted between the first and third thoracic vertebrae, and a spinal titanium alloy plate was used to increase fixation between the first and third thoracic vertebrae from the front [7].

Associations of Thoracic Vertebrae with chemical compounds


Gene context of Thoracic Vertebrae


  1. Cdx1 and Cdx2 have overlapping functions in anteroposterior patterning and posterior axis elongation. van den Akker, E., Forlani, S., Chawengsaksophak, K., de Graaff, W., Beck, F., Meyer, B.I., Deschamps, J. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Visual assessment of vertebral deformity by X-ray absorptiometry: a highly predictive method to exclude vertebral deformity. Rea, J.A., Li, J., Blake, G.M., Steiger, P., Genant, H.K., Fogelman, I. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Bilateral paravertebral blockade for conventional cardiac surgery. Cantó, M., Sánchez, M.J., Casas, M.A., Bataller, M.L. Anaesthesia. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. Part I: Morphometric analysis of the thoracic vertebrae. Vaccaro, A.R., Rizzolo, S.J., Allardyce, T.J., Ramsey, M., Salvo, J., Balderston, R.A., Cotler, J.M. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Thoracic spinal calcinosis circumscripta causing cord compression in two German shepherd dog littermates. McEwan, J.D., Thomson, C., Sullivan, M., Callanan, S., Park, M. Vet. Rec. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Developmental effects of di-n-butyl phthalate after a single administration in rats. Ema, M., Harazono, A., Miyawaki, E., Ogawa, Y. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Anterior approach to the second thoracic vertebral body for surgical treatment (vertebrectomy, bone grafting, and titanium alloy plate fixation). Fang, Z., Yi, X., Li, M., Zhu, T. Int. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Kindness pays dividends: the medical benefits of intercostal nerve block following thoracotomy. Fleming, W.H., Sarafian, L.B. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of polyvinyl chloride overwrap film, high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging, or ultra-low-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on bone marrow discoloration in beef humerus, rib, thoracic vertebra, and scapula. Grobbel, J.P., Dikeman, M.E., Smith, J.S., Kropf, D.H., Milliken, G.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Bone maturation and quality of bone material in rats flown on the space shuttle 'Spacelab-3 Mission'. Simmons, D.J., Russell, J.E., Grynpas, M.D. Bone and mineral. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Maternal toxicity--a possible factor in fetal malformations in mice. Khera, K.S. Teratology (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Cementoblastoma and osteoblastoma: a comparison of histologic features. Slootweg, P.J. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of the gene undulated (un) on the shape of cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae in the house mouse (Mus musculus). Johnson, D.R., O'Higgins, P., McAndrew, T.J. J. Anat. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Thoracic vertebral chordoma in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Pye, G.W., Bennett, R.A., Roberts, G.D., Terrell, S.P. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Metachronous aneurysmal bone cysts with involvement of the humerus and the thoracic vertebrae. Donigan, J.A., Kebaish, K.M., McCarthy, E.F. Skeletal radiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
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