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Chemical Compound Review

Naropin     (2S)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)- 1-propyl...

Synonyms: Ropivacaina, Ropivacaine, Ropivacainum, S-Ropivacaine, Naropin (TN), ...
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Disease relevance of Ropivacaine


Psychiatry related information on Ropivacaine


High impact information on Ropivacaine

  • Effect of rifampin and tobacco smoking on the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine [8].
  • Rifampin considerably increases the metabolism of ropivacaine to PPX and decreases the metabolism to 3-OH-ropivacaine in both nonsmokers and smokers [8].
  • Rifampin decreased the AUC of ropivacaine in nonsmokers by 52% and in smokers by 38% [8].
  • Ropivacaine inhibited LPA signaling in a stereoselective and noncompetitive manner, suggesting a protein interaction [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: CYP1A2 is the most important isozyme for the metabolism of ropivacaine [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ropivacaine


Biological context of Ropivacaine


Anatomical context of Ropivacaine


Associations of Ropivacaine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ropivacaine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ropivacaine

  • Extensive clinical data have shown that epidural ropivacaine 0.2% is effective for the initiation and maintenance of labour analgesia, and provides pain relief after abdominal or orthopaedic surgery especially when given in conjunction with opioids (coadministration with opioids may also allow for lower concentrations of ropivacaine to be used) [22].
  • Lumbar epidural administration of 20 to 30ml ropivacaine 0.5% provided anaesthesia of a similar quality to that achieved with bupivacaine 0.5% in women undergoing caesarean section, but the duration of motor blockade was shorter with ropivacaine [22].
  • Ropivacaine is a long-acting, enantiomerically pure (S-enantiomer) amide local anaesthetic with a high pKa and low lipid solubility which blocks nerve fibres involved in pain transmission (Adelta and C fibres) to a greater degree than those controlling motor function (Abeta fibres) [22].
  • Apart from one trial in women undergoing hysterectomy, clinical studies that compared the efficacy of different doses of epidurally administered ropivacaine in patients undergoing various surgical procedures did not reveal any consistent dose-related differences with respect to sensory blockade [2].
  • METHODS: Sixteen gynecologic patients undergoing abdominal surgery received postoperative epidural analgesia using 0.75% ropivacaine at a dose of 22.5 mg (3 ml) per hour [34].


  1. Ropivacaine: a review of its use in regional anaesthesia and acute pain management. Simpson, D., Curran, M.P., Oldfield, V., Keating, G.M. Drugs (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Ropivacaine. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in regional anaesthesia. Markham, A., Faulds, D. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Preliminary risk-benefit analysis of ropivacaine in labour and following surgery. Cederholm, I. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Ropivacaine inhibits leukocyte rolling, adhesion and CD11b/CD18 expression. Martinsson, T., Oda, T., Fernvik, E., Roempke, K., Dalsgaard, C.J., Svensjö, E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of a seven-day continuous infusion of ropivacaine on circadian rhythms in the rat. Velly, A.B., Simon, N., Bedidjian, S., Bruguerolle, B. Chronobiol. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficacy of 1% ropivacaine at sacral segments in lumbar epidural anesthesia. Arakawa, M., Aoyama, Y., Ohe, Y. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Continuous brachial plexus analgesia and NMDA-receptor blockade in early phantom limb pain: a report of two cases. Kiefer, R.T., Wiech, K., Töpfner, S., Haerle, M., Schaller, H.E., Unertl, K., Birbaumer, N. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of rifampin and tobacco smoking on the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine. Jokinen, M.J., Olkkola, K.T., Ahonen, J., Neuvonen, P.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Local anesthetic inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor signaling by interference with Galpha(q) protein function. Hollmann, M.W., Wieczorek, K.S., Berger, A., Durieux, M.E. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Metabolism of ropivacaine in humans is mediated by CYP1A2 and to a minor extent by CYP3A4: an interaction study with fluvoxamine and ketoconazole as in vivo inhibitors. Arlander, E., Ekström, G., Alm, C., Carrillo, J.A., Bielenstein, M., Böttiger, Y., Bertilsson, L., Gustafsson, L.L. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Recent advances in the pharmacokinetics of local anaesthetics. Long-acting amide enantiomers and continuous infusions. Thomas, J.M., Schug, S.A. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Caudal ropivacaine and neostigmine in pediatric surgery. Turan, A., Memiş, D., Başaran, U.N., Karamanlioğlu, B., Süt, N. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Airway anesthesia alone does not explain attenuation of histamine-induced bronchospasm by local anesthetics: a comparison of lidocaine, ropivacaine, and dyclonine. Groeben, H., Grosswendt, T., Silvanus, M.T., Pavlakovic, G., Peters, J. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Prolonged epidural infusions of ropivacaine (2 mg/mL) after colonic surgery: the impact of adding fentanyl. Finucane, B.T., Ganapathy, S., Carli, F., Pridham, J.N., Ong, B.Y., Shukla, R.C., Kristoffersson, A.H., Huizar, K.M., Nevin, K., Ahlén, K.G. Anesth. Analg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of epidural sufentanil in ropivacaine on urinary retention in patients undergoing gastrectomy. Kim, J.Y., Lee, S.J., Koo, B.N., Noh, S.H., Kil, H.K., Kim, H.S., Ban, S.Y. British journal of anaesthesia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of patient-controlled perineural analgesia on rehabilitation and pain after ambulatory orthopedic surgery: a multicenter randomized trial. Capdevila, X., Dadure, C., Bringuier, S., Bernard, N., Biboulet, P., Gaertner, E., Macaire, P. Anesthesiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Systemic toxicity of ropivacaine during ovine pregnancy. Santos, A.C., Arthur, G.R., Pedersen, H., Morishima, H.O., Finster, M., Covino, B.G. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of ropivacaine on cutaneous capillary blood flow in pigs. Kopacz, D.J., Carpenter, R.L., Mackey, D.C. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of the effects of bupivacaine and ropivacaine on heart cell mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sztark, F., Malgat, M., Dabadie, P., Mazat, J.P. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Cardiac electrophysiologic properties of bupivacaine and lidocaine compared with those of ropivacaine, a new amide local anesthetic. Moller, R., Covino, B.G. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Continuous blockade of both brachial plexus with ropivacaine in phantom pain: a case report. Lierz, P., Schroegendorfer, K., Choi, S., Felleiter, P., Kress, H.G. Pain (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Ropivacaine: an update of its use in regional anaesthesia. McClellan, K.J., Faulds, D. Drugs (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Sciatic nerve block via posterior Labat approach is more efficient than lateral popliteal approach using a double-injection technique: a prospective, randomized comparison. Taboada, M., Rodríguez, J., ALvarez, J., Cortés, J., Gude, F., Atanassoff, P.G. Anesthesiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Cardiac arrest after injection of ropivacaine for posterior lumbar plexus blockade. Huet, O., Eyrolle, L.J., Mazoit, J.X., Ozier, Y.M. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. A comparison of median effective doses of intrathecal levobupivacaine and ropivacaine for labor analgesia. Sia, A.T., Goy, R.W., Lim, Y., Ocampo, C.E. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. Liu, S.S., Moore, J.M., Luo, A.M., Trautman, W.J., Carpenter, R.L. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Ropivacaine 0.2% and lidocaine 0.5% for intravenous regional anesthesia in outpatient surgery. Atanassoff, P.G., Ocampo, C.A., Bande, M.C., Hartmannsgruber, M.W., Halaszynski, T.M. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. A double-blind comparison of 0.125% ropivacaine with sufentanil and 0.125% bupivacaine with sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia. Gautier, P., De Kock, M., Van Steenberge, A., Miclot, D., Fanard, L., Hody, J.L. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Pharmacokinetics of local anaesthetics in infants and children. Mazoit, J.X., Dalens, B.J. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Ropivacaine, a new amide-type local anesthetic agent, is metabolized by cytochromes P450 1A and 3A in human liver microsomes. Ekström, G., Gunnarsson, U.B. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Upregulation of spinal cyclooxygenase-2 in rats after surgical incision. Kroin, J.S., Ling, Z.D., Buvanendran, A., Tuman, K.J. Anesthesiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. An open study of ropivacaine in extradural anaesthesia. Whitehead, E., Arrigoni, B., Bannister, J. British journal of anaesthesia. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Ectopic expression of clusterin/apolipoprotein J or Bcl-2 decreases the sensitivity of HaCaT cells to toxic effects of ropivacaine. Kontargiris, E., Kolettas, E., Vadalouca, A., Trougakos, I.P., Gonos, E.S., Kalfakakou, V. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. A comparative study of sequential epidural bolus technique and continuous epidural infusion. Ueda, K., Ueda, W., Manabe, M. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
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