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MeSH Review

Insect Vectors

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Disease relevance of Insect Vectors


High impact information on Insect Vectors

  • A P-type ATPase is missing-among the 24 completely sequenced eubacteria to date, only three (including X. fastidiosa) do not have a P-type ATPase, and they are all parasites transmitted by insect vectors [5].
  • Subtherapeutic primaquine doses, the shorter extrinsic cycle of P vivax in the insect vector, and the timing of MDA at a high-transmission period of the year may explain the limited effects of the campaign [6].
  • The arrest of variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) synthesis is one of the first events accompanying the differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms into procyclic forms, which are characteristic of the insect vector [7].
  • The Delta adometdc null mutants were created in the insect vector form of the parasite by double targeted gene replacement [8].
  • In the insect vector, the parasite relies on amino acid catabolism, but in the mammalian host, it derives its energy exclusively from blood glucose [9].

Biological context of Insect Vectors


Associations of Insect Vectors with chemical compounds

  • The enzyme and the sialic acid acceptors are present in the mammalian forms of the parasite and in the parasite forms that grow in axenic cultures, which correspond to the developmental stages found in the insect vectors [11].
  • Infective metacyclic forms of the stercorarian trypanosomes are produced in the rectum of their insect vector and are thus in contact with uric acid [12].
  • These results underscore the critical role that the 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease must play in purine salvage during the rapid multiplicative expansion of the parasite population within its insect vector [13].
  • The technique involves a 2-stage incubation of the parasites at 37 degrees C and 0 degrees C in ethanediol, before rapid cooling to -196 degrees C. Viability has been assessed by motility, by migration in a proxy host and by development to the infective stage in the insect vector [14].
  • Sugars on a 72,000 molecular weight glycoprotein on epimastigotes have also been implicated in colonization of the gut of the insect vector and in control of the morphological changes which take place in the insect gut [15].

Gene context of Insect Vectors

  • Moreover, Northern blot analysis revealed that Ld ARF1 is expressed on a 1.35 kb transcript in both the insect vector (promastigotes) and mammalian host (amastigotes) forms of this parasite [16].
  • The blood samples containing serum proteases that were able to cleave VP2 also showed an increase in infectivity for the insect vector when spiked with purified AHSV [17].
  • Polymerase chain reaction amplification can be used to evaluate large numbers of samples in a single day and thus should be useful in large-scale studies of the prevalence of T. cruzi in both insect vectors and mammalian hosts [18].
  • Using this technique, structural and nonstructural proteins of TSWV were readily detected and specifically labelled in cells of the insect vector, the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and in infected cells of the plant species, Emilia sonchifolia L [19].
  • Because the inner core proteins are involved with infectivity of insect cells, we hypothesized that certain VP7 protein sequences are preferred by the insect vector species present in specific geographic locations [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Insect Vectors

  • We also purified, by one-step affinity chromatography, a haemolymph galactoside-binding lectin from R. prolixus which we believe could play an important role in the development of T. rangeli in the haemocoel of the insect vector [21].


  1. Cucumber mosaic virus is restricted from entering minor veins in transgenic tobacco exhibiting replicase-mediated resistance. Wintermantel, W.M., Banerjee, N., Oliver, J.C., Paolillo, D.J., Zaitlin, M. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression and purification of biologically active porcine follicle-stimulating hormone in insect cells bearing a baculovirus vector. Kato, Y., Sato, I., Ihara, T., Tomizawa, K., Mori, J., Geshi, M., Nagai, T., Okuda, K., Kato, T., Ueda, S. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Cryptic plasmid pSKU146 from the wall-less plant pathogen Spiroplasma kunkelii encodes an adhesin and components of a type IV translocation-related conjugation system. Davis, R.E., Dally, E.L., Jomantiene, R., Zhao, Y., Roe, B., Lin, S., Shao, J. Plasmid (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Some aspects of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in greater Cairo, Egypt. Morsy, T.A., Aboul Ela, R.G., Sarwat, M.A., Arafa, M.A., el Gozamy, B.M. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Whole-genome analysis of transporters in the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Meidanis, J., Braga, M.D., Verjovski-Almeida, S. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Changes in malaria incidence after mass drug administration in Nicaragua. Garfield, R.M., Vermund, S.H. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Trypanosoma brucei: posttranscriptional control of the variable surface glycoprotein gene expression site. Pays, E., Coquelet, H., Pays, A., Tebabi, P., Steinert, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from Leishmania donovani. Molecular, genetic, and biochemical characterization of null mutants and overproducers. Roberts, S.C., Scott, J., Gasteier, J.E., Jiang, Y., Brooks, B., Jardim, A., Carter, N.S., Heby, O., Ullman, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Complementation of a glucose transporter mutant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by a novel Trypanosoma brucei gene. Bayele, H.K., Eisenthal, R.S., Towner, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. An antibody to the putative aphid recognition site on cucumber mosaic virus recognizes pentons but not hexons. Bowman, V.D., Chase, E.S., Franz, A.W., Chipman, P.R., Zhang, X., Perry, K.L., Baker, T.S., Smith, T.J. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A sialidase activity in the midgut of the insect Triatoma infestans is responsible for the low levels of sialic acid in Trypanosoma cruzi growing in the insect vector. Amino, R., Serrano, A.A., Morita, O.M., Pereira-Chioccola, V.L., Schenkman, S. Glycobiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Trypanosoma musculi: influence of uric acid on in vitro formation of metacyclic trypomastigotes. Roger, M., Viens, P. Parasitology (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Developmentally regulated expression of a cell surface class I nuclease in Leishmania mexicana. Sopwith, W.F., Debrabant, A., Yamage, M., Dwyer, D.M., Bates, P.A. Int. J. Parasitol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. An improved technique for the cryopreservation of Onchocerca microfilariae. Ham, P.J., Townson, S., James, E.R., Bianco, A.E. Parasitology (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Receptors and recognition mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Snary, D. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. LdARF1 in trafficking and structural maintenance of the trans-Golgi cisternal network in the protozoan pathogen Leishmania donovani. Porter-Kelley, J.M., Gerald, N.J., Engel, J.C., Ghedin, E., Dwyer, D.M. Traffic (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Proteolytic cleavage of VP2, an outer capsid protein of African horse sickness virus, by species-specific serum proteases enhances infectivity in Culicoides. Marchi, P.R., Rawlings, P., Burroughs, J.N., Wellby, M., Mertens, P.P., Mellor, P.S., Wade-Evans, A.M. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi by DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. Moser, D.R., Kirchhoff, L.V., Donelson, J.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Rapid fixation and embedding method for immunocytochemical studies of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) in plant and insect tissues. Westcot, D.M., Ullman, D.E., Sherwood, J.L., Cantone, F.A., German, T.L. Microsc. Res. Tech. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Phylogenetic relationships of bluetongue viruses based on gene S7. Wilson, W.C., Ma, H.C., Venter, E.H., van Djik, A.A., Seal, B.S., Mecham, J.O. Virus Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies on a haemolymph lectin isolated from Rhodnius prolixus and its interaction with Trypanosoma rangeli. Mello, C.B., Nigam, Y., Garcia, E.S., Azambuja, P., Newton, R.P., Ratcliffe, N.A. Exp. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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